Thursday, October 31, 2019
Water Crisis in Middle East - Essay Example Still, conflicts related to water management have not been avoided. Current paper presents the various aspects of water crisis in Middle East. Reference is made, as example, to the water management problems of Israel, Palestine, Syria and Jordan. The academic studies developed in this field reflect different perceptions for the criteria on which water management should be based. This phenomenon could be explained by the following fact: the high development of technology has affected Ã¢â¬Ëthe perception of people on natureÃ¢â¬â¢ (Selby 2005, p.332). Therefore, the terms under which water available in a particular area is characterized as a Ã¢â¬ËresourceÃ¢â¬â¢ have been differentiated today, compared to the past (Selby 2005). In this context, the rights of a state on its water resources are difficult to be fully defined while the support provided by international organizations for such issues is often inadequate (Selby 2005). On the other hand, the water resources worldwide fac e a continuous shrinkage, mostly because of the pollution but also because of the increasing global population. In certain countries, such as those of Middle East, the problem is more intense. In fact, there are countries in the particular region that can be characterized as Ã¢â¬Ëwater Ã¢â¬â poor countries, meaning that their water production, per capita, is below 1000 m3/yrÃ¢â¬â¢ (Hadadin et al. 2010, p.197). ... 2. Water crisis in Middle East 2.1 History The lack of adequate water resources is not a recent problem. In addition, there are certain regions where the specific problem is quite critical: Africa, South and East Asia and Middle East are the regions that are mostly characterized by water shortage; in certain areas of these regions water shortage can be extreme leading local populations to survival concerns (Kummu et al. 2010, p.4). The water crisis developed in the above regions is characterized by the following trend: water shortage in each of these regions has been developed in different rate. More specifically, up to 1900s water shortage was extreme in Africa while from 1960s and up today water shortage is expanded across South Asia and Middle East (Kummu et al. 2010, p.4). In other words, the appearance and the rate of development of water shortage cannot be foreseen in advance (Kummu et al. 2010). In countries of Middle East water shortage is a common problem. For example, in Jo rdan Ã¢â¬Ëthe drying of streams has led to the lowering of water levels across the countryÃ¢â¬â¢ (Hadadin et al. 2010, p.197). In the above country, water shortage first appeared about 1960s and has highly expanded since then (Hadadin et al. 2010, p.197). The two factors that have been considered as enhancing the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s water shortage problem are the following: a) the extremely dry climate and b) the rapid economic development of the country supported the increase of population, which, in its turn, led to the increase of need for water (Hadadin et al. 2010, p.197). In a recent report, where the ability of countries to cover their needs for water through their own
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Case Study for Canady vs Walmart Essay 1. In your own words, what does pretext mean? Pretext is a reason given in justification of a course of action that is not the real reason. 2. Write a paragraph that supports the argument that CanadyÃ¢â¬â¢s dismissal was based on racial discrimination. CanadyÃ¢â¬â¢s would say that his dismissal was based on racial discrimination because Smith a manager introduced himself as a slave driver. Next Smith, ask Canady Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s up, my nigga?Ã¢â¬ and was also referred to as a Ã¢â¬Å"lawn jockeyÃ¢â¬ . He also claimed that Smith made states that all African American look alike, and that his skin color wiped off on towels. Since Canady did not report these comments when Smith made them; Smith continued to use the phase from the Rush Hour movie. He could also believe that the day we was left in the department by himself that management was discriminating against him because he was left to do all the work with no help. 3. Write a paragraph that supports that argument that Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s decision was based on CanadyÃ¢â¬â¢s insubordination. Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s decision was based on insubordination for one Canady was eating in an area where there are policies in place that prohibits easting in the food preparation area. When asked to stop eating in the prohibited area Canady started an argument with management. After the store manager was called to help with the situation Canady continued argue loudly in front of customers and other associates. Candy did not follow the policy that does not allow employees to eat in the food preparation area and he was arguing with management in front of other was insubordination. 4. Research the case. How did the court rule? Why did they rule in this manner? The wrongful termination claim, that claim fails to make out a prima facie case in that Canady failed to establish the fourth prong (i.e. that there are facts that permit an inference of discrimination). Alternatively, even if Canady made out a prima facie case, he failed to present sufficient evidence of pretext. The fact that Smith made racially offensive remarks is of no consequence because those remarks were made outside of the decision making process. The ruling on the hostile work environment claim, the Court found that SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s comments are not sufficiently offensive to the actionable. The Circuit Judge Lay dissents.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
How Ministry Of Tourism Develop Tourism Industry Malaysia Philosophy Essay The Ministry Of Tourism Malaysia can help to develop tourism in Malaysia by hosting different international events, giving discounts on holidays seasons, special packages, discounts for the elderly and childen, develop more natural attractions such as the lime stone mountins in Ipoh, preserving the natural beauty of the many natural attractions that Malaysia has to offer, start developing the infrastructure of Malaysia (meaning the transport system, public toilets, road safety is expected). Better night entertainment and to solve the corruption problem in Malaysia. Clean up all the dirty beaches, cheaper airline tickets for holiday seasons. Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ by doing so customers from other countrys would be attracted to come to Malaysia for a holiday visit and therefore causing the tourism industry in Malaysia to increase thus bringing in more profit to the country for future developments and planning. one. In your opinion how Ministry Of Tourism can develop the tourism industry in Malaysia. The Ministry Of Tourism in Malaysia will be able to develop the tourism industry in Malaysia if they are willing to give out special discounts for familys who do not earn as much so has to purchase a ticket for a holiday to Malaysia at a lower price. By hosting a international concert with famous overseas celebrities will help to attract forigners to come and see the concert. Fans may even go on tour with them and follow them around therefore increasing tourism income in Malaysia. Giving discounts for holiday seasons, discounts for the elderly and children. Along with full packages for familys. Sometimes most familys want to take their parents or children on holiday with them but are unable because of the high price on airline tickets. Also to allow familys of working class (economic class) able to afford to come on holidays at lower prices. Full packages meaning accomodations travel guides and moreÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ giving them the experience to sight seeing without any problems. Touri sts who have problems while on holiday can now be able to go to various tourist spots. Tour guides will help them to get around easily. By preserving and developing the natural environment in Malaysia for example Ipohs lime stone mountains which is a natural beauty that can attract tourist from other countries to come and visit Malaysia. By developing some free land to build some kind of entertainment for example a water theme park or dry theme park can also attract familys to come and enjoy relaxation. At the moment most of the natural attractions of Malaysia are being destroyed for profit and also causing pollution. By stopping the destruction of the natural attractions however you can develop something better for example a water theme park or exploration activity to entertain tourists. Cheaper alcohol entertainment. Tourists will want to enoy a good night out where alcohol is at a decent price. Most places nowadays the beer is very expensive and tourists are not able to enjoy a g ood night out without spending a lot of money. The prices of alcohol is important to attract tourists to a club or pub for a drinking session. Another main point is to start developing the infrastructure of Malaysia meaning that tranports (taxis, trains, buses) public rest room anything that a tourist is able to use. A tourist is not going to use a dirty rest room and this may create a very bad experience in Malaysia. Taxi fares are another major problem because many taxi drivers are taking advantage of foreigners causing them a lot of money on transportation. Overall only taxis are cheating tourists, buses and train systems are better than the taxis. The many night markets where stalls are selling fake jewellery or perfumes which have been tampered with. I had this experience before where I bought a perfume in a famous night market in Penang when I was a tourist here myself many years ago. Where I bought a bottle of Hugo Boss perfume that smelled like an ointment used for curing cramps and muscle aches. So by developing the infrastructure of Malaysia will help to increase tourism in Malaysia where tourist will not be taken advantage off. Corruption in Malaysia is a big issue where corrouption has taken its toll on tourism where illegal items are being sold, harrasment from corrupted police where foreigner have to pay or something. Solving corrouption will help to improve tourism in Malaysia. Tourists come to Malaysia wanting to enjoy water sports however there are only a few beaches where tourists can enjoy sports but are disgusted by the dirty beach itsself. So making sure that tourists are pleased with beaches is very important. so cleaning up the beaches are important for successful tourism in Malaysia. Many tourists are unable to purchace air tickets from foreign countries. Therefore lowering air tickets also help the poor touriststo be able to come to Malaysia for holiday. By doing all this will help to increase tourism rate will increase tremendously. Conclusion With all this knowhow the Ministry Of Malaysia should have no problem to increase tourist rates. So by allowing discounts for flights to Malaysia will encourage familys of the lower income to come for a holiday. Along with having cheaper airline tickets for all customers will also help with promoting tourism in Malaysia and also to attract tourists. Having discounts for the elderly and children. In most cases where tourists want to go on holiday they cannot do so because they cannot afford to buy many tickets and this is a problem for them to come with their children and grand parent. With special discounts for touists where children and elderly citizens gain a discount in price of the tickets thus encouraging tourists to come. Giving special packages to tourists will help them find their way around for example having tourist guides and so on. Giving tourists the best experience they can possibly get which will then encourage tourists to come. Develop more natural attractions such as the lime stone mountins in ipoh and preserving the natural beauty of the many natural attractions that Malaysia has to offer for example all the caves and lime stone mountains which are being destroyed for natural resources. Start developing the infrastructure of Malaysia (meaning the transport system, public toilets, road safety is expected) by developing all the transportations tourists will have no problem getting from A to B . Better alcohol entertainment in most places for night enjoyment, solve the corruption problem in Malaysia, clean up all the dirty beaches. These all all the main key factors inorder to promote and increasing Malaysia tourism industry. Question 2 What is happiness? What constitutes happiness for one and not for another? Happiness is the feeling that one will feel when he/she is pleased or not. There are many ways that one can be happy or become happy for example when some one says something nice to you or compliments you. But must be careful on what you say to some one as for if said to you it be a nice thing but to another might see it as an insult. One man word can be another man poison. Making sure that the words you say are correct in the way you mean to say it. Another way of making some one happy is when you compliment their looks but do not sound sarcastic when complimenting someone. Happiness can be achieved in many ways complmenting, seeing something you like, receving something you always wanted and so on. There are many ways to make some one happy in order to be happy yourself. Question two answer: What is happiness well basically; what is the purpose of life? It is to become happy. The country or society that people live in, they all have the same desire to become happy. However there are many ideals as difficult to grasp as happiness, in our life we will experience happiness and unhappiness but we still are ignorant as to what happiness really is. They are many ways that one can say to make someone happy or that someone can do to make you happy. Happiness come in all shapes, sizes and forms. But there are many ways that one can get upset from complimenting and so on. For example sounding sarcastic when praising someone. So being careful on how you saythings to people even if your complimenting someone they can see it as sarcasm. They could find it offensive or disrespectful by the way you say it. The are many thing you can say to someone to make them feel happy for example complimenting ones looks, just saying something to someone who is depressed to make then feel better with themselves. There are also many things that one can do to make someone feel happy who is depressed. For example making a fool of yourself to make him/her cheer up. Inviting him/her out to hang out and have a drink. But you must always remember that one mans happiness can be another mans poison This basically means that praising one person can be equal to making fun of another. This is called back stabbing someone always try to avoid talking about people to try make someone feel happy. Happiness is not worth the trouble if one person is happy but by doing so you hurt another person in the process. Sure you can think that they would not know about it but you would be supprised. When talking with someone there are many ways where one can become happy where words or gestures can result in someone becoming happy or cheer up. The meaning of life I would say is to become happy with what your doing. For example friendship or popularity can make someone become happy for the time being. Where others can envy them or begin to hate. Having friendship will cause someone to be happy, having more friends to contact with, having friend to keep then happy or cheering them up. Friendship is an important fact that consistutes towards happiness, along with popularity, when being popular one can feel happy or more the fact of being appericiated by others. Popularity can also cause some to start to envy you even jealous can be an effect of ones popularity. So then popularity can have its pro for a person and con for others. Like they say one mans food can be another mans poison. Another cosisitution would be a security of jobs or secure income. For example a family who have children. More importantly mothers and fathers who work would look for work that has either a secure job position or secure salary. This is considered as happiness because a family will feel happy if they are able to hold a good job. Parents feeling happy that they are able to look after themselves and your children with ease.Holding a steady job and a steady salary can help some be become happy. Children and nephews of familys can also be a factor that constitutes towards happiness. Parents with children will feel the joy of happiness once they have given birth is completed the feeling of being over joyed. To the feeling of proudness and somewhat sadness when the once baby is now a young adult and has started his own adulthood. This is one of the factors that happiness can been gained for a family. The feeling of pampering a young child to arguing with a young adult is a main factor that consists towards the happiness of children. Satisfying the needs of a person, when someones needs has been fulfilled that person will feel the joy of happiness for example finishing an important task that you have been working on. The hard work of doing something and the outcome of that task.Example getting a raise or praised by superiors. Or the feeling of finishing reading or writing a book the feeling of proudness. All this can constitute towards happiness. Being a good listener to someone who is talking. By being a good listener to someone who is upset or just needs someone to talk to will cause that person to feel better. Listening to the persons feeling giving examples and advice to make him/her feel better about themselves. Also just the fact of being a good listener can help to make some one feel berrer. As they now have someone to talk to about all their problems. A good listener will change the mood and attitude of a person to become happy depending on how the conversation goes. Keeping someone who feels lonely and give that person company. Being a good friend by accompanying someone who needs a friends. Keeping someone company can help that person feel better and become happy. Just simply walking around or asking them out for a drink or game can help someone who is depressed become better. Happiness comes from the help of others. By simply being a good friend can help someone become happy. Happiness is about the state of ones mind. So just by being a good friend or accompanying someone can be considered as a factor of happiness. Love can also be a factor that constitutes towards happiness When finding love this can be found as a good factor that consists for ones happiness. When finding love it can help one feel the joys of a relationship, happiness and at times remorsful. When your are with partner you will surely feel happy having a romantic time or whatsoever the feeling will result in one being happy. Happiness can be found in the heart of all relationships. When with your partner or simply texting or messaging them will make one feel happy always. Relaxing When at home or anywhere just simply taking time off to relax yourself will help with encouraging happiness just simply enjoying yourself and have a good time. Taking a nap or sitting down after a long day work can release stress, taking time off doing things you want to do. All these can help constitute towards happiness. Relaxing oneself doing all the things that they want to do. Relaxation is a great way for one to become happy. Where a overly stressed man can take time off and relax himself, being relaxed therefore becoming happier. Religion and religious aspects. When one chose religion and all the many religious aspects to follow once in the religion one can feel have relaxed feeling of happiness and prosperity knowing that there are many ways to worship a certain god. If one belives that their god will protect them from harm and bad luck they will feel happy and safe from harm. Knowing that when they passed away they can go to a better place. Every religion has a diffirent god and diffirent views but in the end has the same outcome the safe feeling and happiness. So having religion and following the religious aspects of life is a good way to ensure happiness. A day/night out with friends When going for a day or night out with friends one will feel happy because you can enjoy the day or night either going for a drink with friends or fully enjoying the night or going to have a singing session or simply watching a movie with friends. There are many activities where someone can be happy and enjoy themselves. Being day time or at night friends with activities to do can end up in a great time making one happy so then hanging out wih friends can be a great way to achieve happiness. Time with your family. when spending time with your family for example a vacation or just simply at home or a outing one can easily enjoy a good time. It is proven that when spending time with your family with make others happy and yourself as well. For example doing things that you have always wanted to do as a family such as a vacation, enjoying beautiful views and etc Just simply having a good time with ones family is a factor that consistutes towards happiness. Vacations or holidays Taking time off on a holiday season to go on a holiday / vacation is a great way to achieve happiness, going places with ones family or alone just taking in the sights, good food or shopping all these and more activities can easily help in making one happy therefore having a good time. Some popular destinations would be Hawaii, Spain and so on. All these places also can have cultural diffirences for people who enjoy different customs. A lot good vacations are placed at good locations. So having a vacation or a holiday is a great way to achieve happiness. Question two conclusion. There are many ways that someone can become happy or that somebody can do to make you happy and the many ways to make yourself happy. There are many aspects towards happiness as for anyone will be able to please you or help you become happier. For example how you treat your friends and the tone of your voice. Being careful on how you say things as people can easily missunderstood your intentions, thinking that you are being sarcastic and knowing how to say the correct words and phrases to people. Along with the many various factors that can constitute towards happiness.Religion, friendship, love and so on all these factors can help one achieve happiness when depressed or sad. Happiness is in the eye of the beholder this mean that happiness can only be gained on how one looks at things. And also remembering that one mans food can be another mans poison. This mean to be careful on how you say things making sure that you say things correctly and not sounding sarcastic or rude.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Body and Nature as Signifying System in Jane Smileys A Thousand Acres :: Smiley Thousand Acres Essays
Body and Nature as Signifying System in A Thousand Acres The fascinating aspect of theories about the bodies, is that our bodies lie somewhere in the grey area between the physical and the intellectual realm (in itself testifying to the falsity of such dichotomies). On the one hand, they are biological; genetically programmed flesh. On the other, they are continuous sites of signification; embodying (no pun intended) the essentially textual quality of a human subject's identity. A Thousand Acres foregrounds issues raised by the perspective that one's body can be the vehicle for understanding of the self and the world. One of the ways this is done, is a part of a larger project of ecofeminist rhetoric, creating numerous analogies between the body and nature. This is first seen when Ginny utilizes nature by the Scenic. Not only are "the cattails green and fleshy-looking"(7, italics mine), but the natural scene forms a signifying system like her own body, a way to metaphorically internalize the problems of human interaction. Wonderfully incorporated into this is also the intertextual body created by A Thousand Acres and King Lear. In the storm scene, Lear calls Regan and Goneril "those pelican daughters" (III.iv.75, meaning that they feed on the parent's blood). By the Scenic, Ginny sees pelicans reemerging after supposedly being annihilated by her farmer ancestors, foreshadowing the reemerging of her self after a life of suppression. She can read nature like a text about her own suppression and the suppression and hiding of what is actually going on between the characters in this novel: "The view along the Scenic, I thought, taught me a lesson about what is below the level of the visible" (9). Nature, for Ginny, is understood by way of the intertwining of its and her body's past. She "was always aware [...] of the of the water in the soil, the way it travels from particle to particle", an awareness that eventually evolves into an understanding and identification. She reflects upon the millions of years and billions of "leaves, seeds, feathers, scales, flesh, bones, petals, pollen" (131) that constitute the soil they live on. The hope is that this is a large-scale development of corporeal transformation that transcends the petty exploitative farming of a patriarchal society, and that she is a part of it. After all, her body is not only a part of the soil, and vice versa, but of the poisoning of nature: "My inheritance is with me, sitting in my chair. Body and Nature as Signifying System in Jane Smiley's A Thousand Acres :: Smiley Thousand Acres Essays Body and Nature as Signifying System in A Thousand Acres The fascinating aspect of theories about the bodies, is that our bodies lie somewhere in the grey area between the physical and the intellectual realm (in itself testifying to the falsity of such dichotomies). On the one hand, they are biological; genetically programmed flesh. On the other, they are continuous sites of signification; embodying (no pun intended) the essentially textual quality of a human subject's identity. A Thousand Acres foregrounds issues raised by the perspective that one's body can be the vehicle for understanding of the self and the world. One of the ways this is done, is a part of a larger project of ecofeminist rhetoric, creating numerous analogies between the body and nature. This is first seen when Ginny utilizes nature by the Scenic. Not only are "the cattails green and fleshy-looking"(7, italics mine), but the natural scene forms a signifying system like her own body, a way to metaphorically internalize the problems of human interaction. Wonderfully incorporated into this is also the intertextual body created by A Thousand Acres and King Lear. In the storm scene, Lear calls Regan and Goneril "those pelican daughters" (III.iv.75, meaning that they feed on the parent's blood). By the Scenic, Ginny sees pelicans reemerging after supposedly being annihilated by her farmer ancestors, foreshadowing the reemerging of her self after a life of suppression. She can read nature like a text about her own suppression and the suppression and hiding of what is actually going on between the characters in this novel: "The view along the Scenic, I thought, taught me a lesson about what is below the level of the visible" (9). Nature, for Ginny, is understood by way of the intertwining of its and her body's past. She "was always aware [...] of the of the water in the soil, the way it travels from particle to particle", an awareness that eventually evolves into an understanding and identification. She reflects upon the millions of years and billions of "leaves, seeds, feathers, scales, flesh, bones, petals, pollen" (131) that constitute the soil they live on. The hope is that this is a large-scale development of corporeal transformation that transcends the petty exploitative farming of a patriarchal society, and that she is a part of it. After all, her body is not only a part of the soil, and vice versa, but of the poisoning of nature: "My inheritance is with me, sitting in my chair.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Universal ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Day The United Nations' (UN) Universal Children's Day, which was established in 1954, is celebrated on November 20 each year to promote international togetherness and awareness among children worldwide. UNICEF, the United Nations Children's Fund, promotes and coordinates this special day, which also works towards improving children's welfare. What do people do? Many schools and other educational institutions make a special effort to inform children of their rights according to the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.Teachers stimulate their pupils to think about the differences between themselves and others and explain the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"rightsÃ¢â¬ . In countries where the rights of children are generally well-respected, teachers may draw attention to situations in countries where this is not the case. In some areas UNICEF holds events to draw particular attention to children's rights. These may be to stim ulate interest in the media around the world or to start nationwide campaigns, for instance on the importance of immunizations or breastfeeding.Many countries, including Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, hold Universal Children's Day events on November 20 to mark the anniversaries of the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, other countries hold events on different dates, such as the fourth Wednesday in October (Australia) and November 14 (India). Universal Children's Day is not observed in the United States, although a similar observance, National Child's Day, is held on the first Sunday in June. Public life Universal Children's Day is a global observance and not a public holiday.Survey Saturday, Nov. 20, is Universal ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Day, as declared by the United Nations, and a new survey of children illuminates the wants and needs of kids living in poverty. TheÃ Small Voices, Big DreamsÃ survey questioned ch ildren ages 10 to 12 in 30 countries throughout Africa, Asia and the Americas. Conducted byÃ ChildFund Alliance, which is comprised of global child development organizations, the survey found that one in three children goes to bed hungry at least once a week; more than 25% spend half of every day working, including household chores and other work but not counting school or homework.Importance It was established in 1954 to protect children working long hours in dangerous circumstances and allow all children access to an education. TheÃ UN General AssemblyÃ recommended that all countries should establish a Universal Children's Day on an Ã¢â¬Å"appropriateÃ¢â¬ day. Celebration Children's DayÃ is celebrated on various days in many places around the world, Ecuador, Czech Republic, Albania, Armenia, Angola, Mongolia, Ukraine, Vietnam celebrate it on June 1 Sweden, Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Guatemala celebrate it on October 1
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Between 429-347 BCE, were the period of Plato and his ocean of philosophical dispositions and carried the most deep-seated political, social and intellectual thoughts. His questions raised the consciousness of intellectuals, students and general people making them think every aspect of their life from new and fresh perspective. As said by Alfred North Whitehead, Ã¢â¬Å"All Western philosophy consists of footnotes to Plato. Ã¢â¬ (Garvey 7) Plato was a student of Socrates and teacher of Aristotle, and naturally in his works there is a reflection of Socrates thoughts and ideologies. But while remembering, Plato we should not forget Cicero, 106-43 B. C. who was himself part of many of the political developments of his time. He was not only a philosopher but also an orator, lawyer and politician. He laid more importance to politics over philosophy. His philosophical works came about only in the period when he was forced to refrain himself from politics. Though he was neither considered as exceptional thinker nor we can see any originality in his works yet his thoughts on various aspects of philosophy exerted tremendous influence on many thinkers after many years to come. His popularity rose in 19th century. There is no comparison between Plato and Cicero as they were both of different ages and had their own distinct attributes, yet if we give deep thoughts into their philosophical works what we get is what we call slight deviations in their thoughts on Politics. Plato was born in Athens during 428-7 B. C. E but there is no certainty about this date because according to Diogenes Laertius, Plato was born in the same year when Pericles died. He was also considered to be six years younger than Socrates was and his death came when he passed the youthful years of his life-at the age of 84. If according to ApollodorusÃ¢â¬â¢ version, the death date of Plato is correct then his birth date should lie between 430 or 431 but Diogenes put his birth in 429. Diogenes further said that if Plato was the twenty years old at the time of Socrates murder in 399 then his year of birth should be 427. These years between 429-347 B. C. E is considered to be very appropriate, whereas, Cicero was born on 3rd January 106 BC in Arpinum, as Arpino today. It is a hill town situated 100 kilometres towards south of Rome. This small Italian got Roman citizenhsip in 188 B.Ã C. and began to speak Latin rather than their language Volscian before they were enfranchised by Romans. The assimilation of nearby Italian communities into Rome laid CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s future as a Roman statesman, orator and writer. Though he had a great mastery over Latin rhetoric and composition but Cicero would never from him heart considered himself as a Ã¢â¬Å"RomanÃ¢â¬ and he was aware of this fact through out his life. During this period of Roman history, it was considered as cultured to able to speak both the Greek and Latin languages. Like many of his contemporaries, Cicero also got education in Greek rhetoricians, and their most influential teachers of their time was also Greek. His knowledge of Greek language enabled him to translate many of its theological concepts into Latin brining maximum number of common people into the world of Greek philosophical thoughts. He was so inclined towards the study of Greek culture and language that he would be called by the other boys as Ã¢â¬Å"Little Greek boyÃ¢â¬ , yet it is his obsession with the Greek language that made him tied to the traditional Roman elite. The family of Cicero belonged to the local class of nobles known as domi nobles, but without any tie with the Roman senatorial class. Cicero was only connected to Gaius Marius, the most popular person born in Arpinium. In 80 B. C. , he led the most popular faction during civil war against optimates of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s father was a knight who would compensate his personal life by reading books. His mother was Helvia who was a very good housewife. (Clayton Online edition) PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s was also fortunate to be born in a noble family of Athens. He was the son of Aristone and his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s name was Perictone. He got his nickname from the wrestlerÃ¢â¬â¢s broad shouldered physique. He was expected to follow the familyÃ¢â¬â¢s tradition of politicians but when he witnessed that Athens entered into conflict with Sparta during Peloponnesian war, he aliented himself from politics and at the age of twenty, joined the School of Socrates. Socrates main ambition was to seek the truth and further explore on the issues like virtue and pity. He also critcised religious and political institutions but allegations began to be levid against him from all corners as he was charged for corrupting the mind of youths. Plato captured the nerves of the society at large and pened down his earnest views followed by Apology and Crito. When Socrates died, Plato opened his academy in a grove which was considered to be sacred to the demigod Academus, near Athens. The importance of Academy grew when Aristotle became its student. Astronomy, Mathematics, and Philosophy were the subjects taught in the Academy. Few years of his life, Plato spent in travelling gaining more knowledge in the other parts of Mediterranean whereas rest part of his life was spent in Athens until he died in 347 B. C.Ã Ralph Waldo Emerson, a great American essayist, philosopher, a poet and a leader of Transcendentalist movement of the nineteenth century evoked, Ã¢â¬Å"Plato is philosophy, and philosophy, Plato, at once the glory and the shame of mankind, since neither Saxon nor Roman have availed to add any idea to his categories. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â(Emerson, Spiller, Ferguson Slater & Carr 23) Plato understood politics from the angle of justice and democracy. His aim was to give the rulers the main principle of what constituted real politics. For Plato, politics was an application of what metaphysics and ethics considered as true. His ideal world was something which was true, good and therefore virtuous. He gave to the world the best mouth piece of the study of human behavior and his relation with society. His Ã¢â¬Å"RepublicÃ¢â¬ was his ideological stand point whereby he posed number of questions and pondered their answers in the light of various assumptions and dynamics of society. His main question comes from the light of what is good and bad in their world-Why should we be good and why in this cruel world, wicked are more happy and successful? To find out the answer to this question, Plato had to invite the whole community-the Polis. In other words , if you can find out the right direction to form polis which is healthy then the importance to individual happiness is ruled out. For Plato, justice is a base which could only be frutifully gained by bringing about balance in wisdom, courage and temperance. For Plato, even an ideal state can be self desructive. Plato posited the view that even ideal state where all have equal rights could also be destructive and it could be happen in turn by the very basic concept on which democracy stands. Though Republic, the Statesman, the Laws are three main political dialogues of Plato, and they developed their ideologies on the basis of what today is termed as conceptual analysis-in other words clarification of the basic principles on which politics stands and its importance. For Plato, this conceptual analysis was a preliminary stage for further critical evaluation of thought processes. According to Plato, making right decisions on the administration and making right choice between peace and war are the two most crucial initial steps of good politics. Such decisions could not be left into the hands of public only but by good orator. CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s works included fifty speeches, around thousand letters to friends and associates, among them the several of his works included rhetorical theories and twelve out of them are on philosophical topics. These display great intellectual thoughts that deepen CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s conviction that both the philosophy and rhetoric are independent to each other and are very important for human life and society. His works on philosophy stand witness to the rhetorical techniques and style of Roman oratory. The political philosophy of Plato was largely based on speculations about ideal state. Though he did conceptualize his points by imploring upon the city-states of Greece and events in current political scenario, yet his discussions evolved largely around what he and other intellectuals thought to be ideal states. The essence of his ideological state lied in the needs of the man on the individual level and on the whole and these needs of the man joined them together to work for the common goal. The members that make the society could be divided into different classes according to their particular work criteria. As according to Plato, in man, there are two different souls in the same way in the society also, there are three different classes: philosophers, warriors, and producers; one of which belongs to the rational souls and the rest two belong to the irrational souls and each class has its own particular role to fulfill. For e. g. philosophers run the state, warriors defend it and producers cultivate their skills to produce the materialistic goods needed by the state. On the other hand, much of the CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s political thoughts followed Aristotle concept of ideal state. For Cicero, there were three main forms of government; monarchy, aristocracy, and the constitutional state, but he also believed that there is every scope of perversion in each form of government, which emerges from those who do not have regard for the public good. Not one form of government is perfectly good. Instead Cicero prescribed what is known as composite form of government with the principles of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy. This form of government today is known as Common Wealth form of Government and Cicero termed as the Res Publica, literally known as Ã¢â¬Å"The PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s thing. His composite republic is based on the monarchical principle, also known as consuls; the aristocratic is likened to the Senate of Rome, which performs both the legislative and executive functions. The democratic principles are tribunes referred to as committees (comitia) in ancient Rome. Rather than revolutionary or politically visionary, Cicero was being considered more as a Ã¢â¬Å"political conservativeÃ¢â¬ who was eager to preserve the Roman Republic against the designs of Julius Caesar, Mark Anthony, and Octavian whose aim was to make Rome into their own personal empire. But Cicero did not succeed in preventing Roman Republic from collapse and was murdered by the followers of Mark Anthony. (Marcus Cicero, Section 12). CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s law was based on these two: Ã¢â¬Å"That true law was reason, That good is always good, that bad is always bad and in traditional Roman values. Ã¢â¬ (Simmons Online) He criticized all other form of constitutions for breaching the rights and interests of people and conveyed that political system should provide legal rights to every one equally but give electoral, legislative and judicial rights in accordance to their merit and wealth. CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s first book On the Orator laid importance of Oratory in the politics of Rome. Oratory had been part of the Roman politics, and Cicero mainly superimposed its value. His discussions merely revolved around education basically history and poetry with composition of logic, philosophical theory and rhetorical techniques. As said by Stephen WhitesÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"Orator, clearly reflects CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s own proficiencies, unites thorough knowledge of history and law with complete command of in a Romanized version of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s philosopher-rulersÃ¢â¬ . (White online edition). Both Plato and Cicero wanted education to be based on philosophy to produce best statesman. While PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s more emphasis was on training on mathematical ground and transcendental metaphysics, Cicero wanted many practical programs of instructions designed to cultivate articulacy and civic debate. (White Online edition). His On the Republic is his much thought provoking dialects on leadership and politics. It was almost lost but its first third was recovered in 1820. On the Republic is a challenge of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Greek political theory based on utopian thoughts. He defined republic as Ã¢â¬Å"a peoplÃ¢â¬â¢e affair, Ã¢â¬Å"(res populi) and people as a community who have joined in to one consensus on their mutual interest. His other part constitutes his explanation on types of constitutions in classical Greek style and developed the data on the development of Roman institutions; whereas some of the sections which are either lost or preserved in very poor state have in short explanation of Hellenistic debates on the nature and rewards of justice and the discussions on education system of Rome. Yet another of his book On Laws is a sequel to a legal system. Contradicting PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s laws, he contended that Rome already had embodied itself much the ideals of law. On Laws truly appeared to be very important in the sense that it contains full account of natural law. Based entirely on Stoic ideas, Cicero contended that the whole concept of law is already a part of nature with an appropriate order, which could be codified in legislation for final tribunal in a court of law. After these writings, civil war erupted and he did not go further into this, but last of his books summed up his thinking on political grounds by bringing out the importance of morality in public life. In his On Duties which was his epistle to his son, he gave the routes to bestow on the proper code of conduct for Roman nobility emphasizing justice, benefaction and public service. His entire focus was on the men of high status and their way of dealing with the problems relating to personal ambitions and social obligations. Cicero too always stood on his profound trust on the noblest trait of human beings, which is their humanity and inculcate reasoning power to improve the lives of human beings. His thoughts on humanism are best skewed in his Ã¢â¬Å"On the Ends of Good and EvilÃ¢â¬ . The dialogue herein reflects on the question of what and where is the end of all human actions and the way you attain the happiness. Cicero agreed with Aristotle and saw that human beings are political or social animals. Ã¢â¬Å"But nature has given to mankind Ã¢â¬ ¦ a compulsion to do good, and Ã¢â¬ ¦ a desire to defend the well being of the community Ã¢â¬ ¦. (Cicero & Rudd R I. 1). Ã¢â¬ But the most influential model book was The Republic by Plato. CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s homage to the Republic was found in its expression in the section which was lost but also found its place in his concluding marks of the cosmos and the afterlife (The Dream of Scipio), which reflects the myth of err by the end of the PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s end book. Plato has been directly quoted and or reflected several times. CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s Scipio states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Rather than invent a city for themselves as Plato did, he prefers to examine a real historical stance (The Roman Constitution) which comes closet to the idealÃ¢â¬ . (Cicero, Rudd, & Powell xvi) But it was also mistake to espouse that, because Cicero had departed from Plato in certain way, his Republic is in very deep sense anti-platonic. It is further said that Ã¢â¬Å"CicerioÃ¢â¬â¢s Scipio was enough of a Platonist to regard philosophy and astronomy as wise manÃ¢â¬â¢s true occupation, and to declare that one should take political offices only our of sense of duty or necessity, as PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Guardian do. (I-26-29)( Cicero, Rudd, & Powell 17) There are many similarities between the PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Republic and Cicero, de ra republic. Each formulated on the account of relationship between citizen and state. Both of them discussed on justice, both of them bestowed theory of constitution. Both of them also had mentioned discussion on education and a vision of an after life. Sharpely too suggested that Ã¢â¬Å"Cicero Republic in the sense, PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s turned inside out. Ã¢â¬ (Cicero& Zetzel 14) In the Republic by Plato, Socrates and his friends are trying to implore and analyze on what should be an ideal city but do not want to analyze the state in which he was living. Plato and Cicero were only mouthpieces in an arena of political thoughts in their respective periods whereas in CiceroÃ¢â¬â¢s De re publica, all the comments whether directly or indirectly emphasized on the organization of the state they ought to be living, which was Roman Republic in the final stages.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Essay on Communication in Health and Social CareEssay Writing Service Essay on Communication in Health and Social Care Essay on Communication in Health and Social CareCommunication plays a crucial role in health and social care. Effective communication allows improving interpersonal relationships. This fact means that health and care service workers need to develop the proper communication skills to effectively communicate with service users. According to researchers, Ã¢â¬Å"people who use health, social care and early years services, are often dependent on care workers for obtaining and giving informationÃ¢â¬ (Fisher, 2005, p. 53). As technology continues to provide benefits to various fields of human activity, the health and social care field is no exception. Today health and social care professionals effectively utilize these benefits, which provide considerable improvements in health and social care applications. A wide range of information and communication technologies (ICT) are used to enhance health and social care services (Martinho et al., 2013). Stephen A. Webb states that Ã¢â¬Å"new IC Ts will come to have a decisive role in the complex field of transformations that are taking place in the caring professionsÃ¢â¬ (p. 223). Generally speaking, the role of communication in health and social care is really important as it involves the application of the proper communication skills, deals with various factors that influence the effectiveness of communication process and reflects the use of information and communication technology in health and social care settings to meet the need of clients.The major goal of this paper is to discuss the role of communication in health and social care. Special attention should be paid to the use of communication skills in health and social care; the impact of various factors on the communication process in health and social care; and the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in health and social care.The use of communication skills in health and social careÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã To explore the u se of communication skills in health and social care, it is necessary to define the term health communication which forms the basis for developing meaningful communication skills. According to researchers, the term Ã¢â¬Å"health communicationÃ¢â¬ can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the art and technique of informing, influencing and motivating individual, institutional and public audiences about important health issuesÃ¢â¬ (Parrott, 2004, p. 751). Communication in health and social care settings contributes to vital health outcomes, promoting positive health behavior and enhancing physical and mental well-being of clients.Application of the relevant theories of communication to health and social care settingsThere are several theories of communication that can be applied to health and social care settings. Abraham MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory (the theory of hierarchy of needs) is based on the idea that human life can be evaluated in terms of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individual development and potential. M aslow states that all individuals have some levels of need that should be met in the course of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life (Fisher, 2005; Clarke et al., 2000). The process of communication reflects oneÃ¢â¬â¢s needs because while communicating, social, intellectual, emotional and physical needs are met. Social needs met in the process of communication involve social interaction. Intellectual needs are met because communication requires certain thinking processes, as well as the use of intellectual abilities to develop the theme of communication (Fisher, 2005). Ã Emotional needs are met in the process of communication because individuals experience satisfaction while communicating with others, which gives them the sense of achievement (Fisher, 2005). Ã Emotions influence the outcomes of communication process, as well as oneÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. According to Angela Fisher (2005), Ã¢â¬Å"our emotions can be influenced in a good way or in a negative wayÃ¢â¬ (p. 60). Negative emotions lead to low self-esteem. Physical needs are met because individuals involved in communication may use their physical abilities (Clarke et al., 2000). Ã Actually, poor communication in health and social care could result in the failure of clients to meet the required social, intellectual, emotional and physical needs (Fisher, 2005).Besides, ThompsonÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of systematic practice can be applied to communication in health and social care settings. Thompson suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"vague care work can result in poor quality care and also in stress for a care workerÃ¢â¬ (Moonie, 2005, p. 93). There are many benefits of using systematic practice, including enhanced professional credibility, the ability to deal with workloads and reduce stress level, as well as enhanced ability to negotiate. These benefits contribute to effective communication practices (Moonie, 2005).In addition, KolbÃ¢â¬â¢s learning cycle theory can help to better understand the role of communication in health and s ocial care settings. Kolb states that learning cycle that consists of four stages helps to improve communication. Care workers may use KolbÃ¢â¬â¢s cycle to better understand and interpret the needs of clients (Moonie, 2005).Stage one: concrete experience;Stage two: reflective observation;Stage three: abstract conceptualization;Stage four: active experimentation (Moonie, 2005).The use of communication skills in health and social care settingsÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In health and social care settings, special attention should be paid to the development and use of effective communication skills. Professional care workers should be aware of the importance of using the proper skills when communicating with their clients. Angela Fisher (2005) states that Ã¢â¬Å"the work that is done in care settings depends very much on using effective communication,Ã¢â¬ which requires care workers to be able to make a comprehensive analysis of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts and ideas, sk illfully use specially developed techniques to interpret the language and non-verbal behavior of their clients, have the ability to draw conclusions and make decisions, as well as to use the proper ideas to continue conversation (p. 55). Poor communication can lead to a loss of self-esteem, as well as to insensitivity to other people, resulting in discrimination (Parrott, 2004). Effective communication skills used in health and social care settings should be based on emotional and social needs of clients (Clarke, et al., 2000). Care workersÃ¢â¬â¢ communication skills should provide a comprehensive action plan for enhancing one-to-one communication (Fisher, 2005).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In general, effective communication depends on the use of the meaningful communication skills and social coordination, which include the following requirements:Care workers should demonstrate an interest in communication process;Care workers should be interesting;Care workers sh ould be well-trained to start a conversation, keep it and to end a conversation (Fisher, 2005)Some methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care settingsTo deal with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care settings, it is necessary to use the proper methods. One of the methods that can promote effective communication in health and social care services is to maintain confidentiality of information. Liam Clarke and colleagues (2000) state if a health and social care worker is Ã¢â¬Å"careless with information about clients, the trust upon which the care relationship is built will be lostÃ¢â¬ (p. 73). Besides, it is necessary to measure the effectiveness of interpersonal communication through listening (Parrott, 2004). This monitoring can be done by means of the following methods:verbal feedback obtained from the client with whom care worker is communicating;written feedba ck obtained from some observer (Clarke et al., 2000);video observation, which helps to observe a care workerÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior in the process of communication;Ã¢â¬Å"self-reflectionÃ¢â¬ on clientÃ¢â¬â¢s interviews or feedback (Clarke et al., 2000, p. 71).In general, observation of communication process depends on the reflection of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own skills and abilities, and helps to improve care workersÃ¢â¬â¢ sensitivity to the interpersonal communication. Liam Clarke and colleagues (2000) state that a care worker should assume Ã¢â¬Å"a primary professional responsibility for the success of the interactionÃ¢â¬ (p. 71). It is very important for the care worker to address any misunderstandings regarding the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s communication (Dickson et al., 1996).Analysis of the use of strategies to support users of health and social care services with specific communication needs in health and social settingsVarious strategies can be used to support the users of health and social care services with specific communication needs in health and social settings. It has been found that individuals with learning disabilities and individuals with sensory disabilities have specific communication needs (Barrett et al., 2004; Moonie, 2005). Care workers should be ready to meet these needs. To support users of health and social care services with specific communication needs, it would be better to develop a plan of action (Moonie, 2005). Care workersÃ¢â¬â¢ actions should facilitate the process of communication, giving clients an opportunity to express themselves. Care workers should ask the right questions, adapting their listening and communication styles to suit the needs of their clients (Moonie, 2005). Care workers should learn and use the strategies of observing and interpreting the non-verbal signals given by an individual with specific communication needs (Parrott, 2004). To manage a successful communication process, care workers should structure their talk, l inking it to certain goals and objectives. It is possible to use audiovisual material, aidesÃ¢â¬â¢ memories, visual aids and supplementary material (Moonie, 2005, p. 86). Active listening is one of the most important strategies to meet the needs of health and social care users.The impact of various factors on the communication process in health and social careThere are many various factors that have a strong impact on the communication process in health and social care. Some of these factors include values, beliefs and cultural factors, legislation, charters and codes of practice, and the effectiveness of organizational systems and policies in promoting good practice in communication in health and social care settings.Essay on Communication in Health and Social Care Ã part 2
Sunday, October 20, 2019
Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business Requirements for the formation of a valid contract A contract can be defined as a lawfully binding agreement between two parties. It has consequences on either party. Therefore, as discussed below, a contract has to contain some basic elements that should be used to define it.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More An Offer There should be an offer by the first party to invite the second party into the contract for negotiations purposes. An ascent to the same by the second party will lead to the contract coming into being and becoming legally binding. An offer can be described as an expression of willingness to contract on certain terms (Jalil 2011, p. 110). The offer is usually made to the second party with an intention that it will become binding when accepted. When an offer is declined, it extinguishes the idea of the probable contract. The refore, one cannot be held to account for it. Acceptance The second element of a contract that is very important is the acceptance bit, which should be done within the terms of the contract. A party to the contract will be assumed to have understood the terms of the contract when he or she enters agreement consent to the same (Jalil 2011, p. 110). One is legally bound by a contract once he or she accepts it. He or she has the duty to make sure that he or she understands the terms of the contract before accepting it. Breach of contract after acceptance might lead to legal consequences. Legal purpose/ Objective There must be an intention for the two parties to create a legal relationship between them with the contract. An absence of legal intent will render the contract null and void because social agreements between parties or agreements of a domestic nature are not regarded as legally binding because they do not contemplate legal relations (Jalil 2011, p. 111) as in the case of Balf our vs. Balfour (1919). Mutuality of Obligation Mutuality of obligation can be described in other words as the meeting of minds. In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"parties in the contract must agree to the same thing in terms of the drawn contract, and at the same timeÃ¢â¬ (Jalil 2011, p. 111). Mutuality of obligation can only be achieved when the contract is still on offer. Once the offer has been withdrawn, it cannot happen.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Lawful Consideration Lawful consideration is an element of the contract that represents either a benefit to the promisor or detriment to the promise (Jalil 2011, p. 112). It denotes the price offered in exchange for a promise, otherwise known as quid pro-quo. Competent Parties A contract can only be made between two legally competent parties (Jalil 2011, p. 112). Therefore, a contract can only be made between people of legal age and sound mind. How the law approach the issues of consideration, intention to create legal relations, and the capacity to contract According to the law, a contract becomes legally binding once the promisee accepts and signs it. The promisee is believed to have read the details of the contract, or is supposed to have read the details of the contract before appending a signature on the same (Jalil 2011, p. 110). In the above scenario, Al has advertised the goods he has on offer to potential buyers thus inviting them to contract. A negotiation occurs between the Al and Bash cars where an agreement is reached through the mode of communication adopted by the two. In this case, an agreement was ostensibly reached when Bash cars wrote back to Al to accept the offer thus providing a green light for Al to deliver the goods, which he did as per the contract. According to the law, several reasons can lead to a contract being voidable, with no party bearing liability. According to Jalil (2 011), under the issue of consideration in a contract, there is either a benefit to the party offering the contract or detriment to the second party concerning the contract (p. 115). In the above case, Al has done his duty to communicate to Bash cars about the final price he is offering. It is the duty of Bash cars to read the communication properly before accenting to it. Therefore, the mistake not to read the reply letter properly from Al is placed on Bash cars because their own negligence made them fail to see the price in the letter. The assumption that the price is 45 pounds is solely made by Bash cars and that they have no reason to back up their assumption. According to the contract law, an objective inference should be made when coming up with a contract in that, when a third party looks at the same contract, they should come up with a conclusion that the contract is meant to achieve (Jalil 2011, p. 113). The mistake in this case is unilateral. It cannot render the contract v oid.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Aspects of Contract and Negligence for Business specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, Bash cars plc should be responsible for the fault and that it should bear the consequences as in the case of Storer v Manchester City Council (1974). The law provides for an intention to create legal relations by setting up conditions for the same. The two parties must be ready to enter a legally binding contract for it to become legal. The key problems associated with exclusion clauses and their incorporation into a contract Exclusion clauses in contracts are usually meant to exclude a certain party to the contract from certain events that might happen within the execution of the contract, which the party might be held liable for them in normal circumstances (Maharaj 2012, p. 636). Exclusion clauses are usually made by parties contracted to carry out certain services on behalf of clients . Such services usually have certain risks. It is therefore meant to protect the contractor from carrying the costs that might arise from the risk. Exclusion contracts are governed by the Unfair Contract Terms Act of 1977 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations Act of 1999 (Jalil 2011, p. 119). Exclusion clauses become valid as long as they meet several conditions. Firstly, they must have been properly included in the contract and that they do not contravene any law. Some key problems associated with exclusion clauses are evident. For instance, some exclusion clauses are vague. In many instances, exclusion clauses have been vaguely worded in that the reader of the clause might not tell exactly what the scope of the clause is all about. This step is usually accomplished by the drafter of the clause as a way of giving it a wide range in the case of liabilities (Maharaj 2011, p. 636). On the other hand, it confuses the client because he or she will not be in a good posit ion to tell what liabilities the contractor should carry and/or what the client should carry. Invisibility of the clause is yet another problem. Many exclusion clauses are not directly visible to the client taking the service. They are usually not noticeable in the wording of the contract. They can appear at the bottom of the contract, written in very small fonts, or be placed behind the document where many people might not bother to find out (Maharaj 2011, p. 636). Many contractors who might not want to jeopardise their chances of securing the work at hand therefore use this case as a secret weapon. It therefore needs a client to be very careful when reading and signing the contract.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More How the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contract Regulations 1999 ensure that exclusion clauses are fair and reasonable.Ã The unfair Contract Act 1977 and the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracting Regulations 1999 were put in place to regulate the creation, use, and interpretation of the exclusion clause with the sole purpose of protecting the consumer. The two Acts made it easy for judges to make interpretations of exclusion clauses by eliminating ambiguities in the wording as in the case of Houghton v. Trafalgar Inso Co Ltd. 1954. The Acts were meant to protect weaker parties in the contract because the consumers were in most cases disadvantaged by the clause (Maharaj 2011, p. 640). The fact that the clauses were part of the contract regardless of how they have been placed on the document meant that only the drafters of the clause and those who are keen enough would be aware of it thus catching many people unaware of their presence. The Acts regula ted the use of the clauses in that the drafters of the clauses had to meet certain conditions or otherwise the clause would become void (Maharaj 2011, p. 638). The clause in this case has to be introduced to clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention before the signing of the contract, or has to be placed in a very visible place for customers to read before they enter an unwritten contract. The two Acts gave courts the power to nullify any exclusion clauses if they found them unreasonable. This provision usually happens when the terms of the exclusion clause are in conflict with other terms of the contract thus rendering the clause void concerning the repugnancy rule as evident in the case of Mendelson v. Normand 1970. Therefore, all repugnant cases are deemed unreasonable. They can therefore not stand as legal clauses. In the end, they are voidable by the law. Will Move It Ltd be able to rely on this exclusion clause? Move It will not be able to rely on this exclusion clause because it does not mee t the legal requirements for exclusion clauses as per the 1977 Act as well as the 1999 Act. In the first place, clients should be informed about the exclusion clause before they sign the contract so that they are fully aware of the contract they are signing (Maharaj 2011, p. 638). To this effect, Move It failed to notify Cool It of the clause. It can be assumed as well that Cool It was not aware of the clause while entering the contract. Thus, it cannot be held liable by the exclusion clause. Under the nature of the document test, the document does not qualify as a contract document because its original aim is different from the purpose it is being used on by inserting the exclusion clause. The document that the manager was given with the exclusion note was the consignment note, which cannot be deemed as the contract document for the particular work when objectively tested as revealed in the case of Chapleton v. Barry Urban District Council. On the other hand, the notice of the clau se must be made aware to customers before they enter the contract, and not after entering the contract (Maharaj 2011, p. 638). In this case, the clause is believed to have been entered after the entering of the contract because, even if the consignment note is decided to become the contract document, the clause should be on the face of the page where the customer signs. This exclusion clause by Move It is found behind the face of the document where the contract has been signed. A duty of care exists A duty of care in this case can be described as the necessary steps that should be taken in a place to prevent the occurrence of an accident. A duty of care comes in the form or rules, structures, and steps that have been put in place to prevent any probable accident from happening (Gray 2011, p. 68). A duty of careÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility falls within the ambits of authority in charge of a particular facility that is being used by people. Thus, the authority has the duty of putting up m easures that would ensure the facility is running according to the law concerning safety measures. Was a Duty of Care was breached In proving that a duty of care was breached, claimants have to prove that they did not act negligently for the occurrence to happen. They also have to show that they were within the rules and regulations of the given facility during the happening of the accident thus blaming it on authorities owning the facility (Tan 2012, p. 93). In proving that a breach of care was breached, the claimant has to refer to what the law provides for in terms of how the facility should be managed, and what rules the facility has put in place to secure its clients from injury. The Damage is Both Direct and Foreseeable A claimant should be in a position to prove that the damage is both direct and foreseeable. In this case, an occurrence of a certain event should be linked directly as the cause to a damage that might have occurred by showing successive events that led to the o ccurrence (Burns 2011, p. 658). On the other hand, the damage can be deemed foreseeable if certain acts of negligence will lead to an accident. Thus, failure to take reasonable steps is what should be attributed to the accident as in the case of Hughes v. Lord Advocate 1963.Ã Under the rule of vicarious liability, employers are legally responsible for commissions and omissions of their employees, regardless of whether the employees were acting under instructions or on their own (Tan 2012, p. 93). Vicarious liability can also be referred to as an imputed negligence, since a liability can be assigned to an individual who did not cause a certain injury, but by virtue of the individual being related to the person who caused it in a given way. The employer under this case is burdened with the liability because it is assumed that the employee is the agent of the employer and that he or she was working in the interests of the employer when the accident happened. Tan (2012) states that vi carious liability goes beyond employer-employee relations. It can also be applied in the case of a car accident when the liability is put on the owner of the car even if the proprietor of the car was not in it when the accident occurred (p. 94). In deciding whether the blame should be shifted from the employee to the employer, the court has to establish the following facts. The court has to establish whether a tort has been committed. In doing this, court will be establishing grounds for the case because the establishment of the tort will be the basis for the case (Gray 2011, p. 69). Secondly, the court has to establish if the cause of the tort is due to the employee because only when the mistake is attributed to the employee is when the tort can qualify for a vicarious negligent consideration. Thirdly, the court has to determine if the tort was caused by the employee in the act of employment and specifically during his or her scope of work. An employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s mistake away from du ty cannot be laid on to the employer. How the legal relationship between the parties in tort differs from the relationship in contract law The difference in parties in a tort law and those in a contract law is not usually very distinct although the two laws have different tenets. In a tort law, it focuses on the foreseeable ability of an event happening (Burns 2011, p. 658). In this case, one party should have been in a position to foresee the event happening. Thus, he or she should have taken an action to stop it from happening. Failure to do this can be described as negligence to which the negligent party is liable to pay an amount as determined by the court. The legal relationship between two parties under a tort law comes into existence after an event that leads to some form of damage occurs (Burns 2011, p. 658). The court then has to determine if it is a tort or not before the damage can be computed or not. On the other hand, a contract is entered between parties once the value of the goods or services has been determined. A contract legally binds two parties once they have signed it. It is meant to secure the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s interests in case there are losses coming out of breach of the contract (Jalil 2011, p. 110). Whereas a contract is binding only to the parties signing it, a tort can become binding to parties who are not directly related to it, but who can be held responsible under the law. The tort law is legally hinged on negligence on one party, which leads to the damage of another party while the contract law is hinged on the failure of a party to the contract to meet their obligation.Ã Applying the rules on both negligence and vicarious liability to consider whether Sheila and Karen would be able to claim for the injury and damage. Under the rules of negligence and vicarious liability, employers are held liable for the negligent acts of their employees as long as the acts happen in the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ cause of duty (Tan 2012, p. 96). In the first case, Manjit is regarded as an employee of Hurryhaste and hence an agent for Hurryhaste. He is therefore covered by the vicarious liability rule. Though Manjit is a casual worker with the company, it does not disqualify him from being regarded as an employee by the company. Therefore, he is regarded as one. The accident occurred during ManjitÃ¢â¬â¢s cause of duty hence perfectly fitting in the vicarious liability bracket. On the other hand, Karen has no contributory fault to the accident because she had parked her car properly. During ManjitÃ¢â¬â¢s negligent driving, her car was hit. Karen therefore qualifies for compensation from Hurryhaste who is the employer of Manjit in this case. Hurryhaste should pay Karen. If it so wishes, it can surcharge Manjit for his negligent acts. On the other hand, Dave was within his employment duties when he hit SheilaÃ¢â¬â¢s car because the accident happened when he was coming from making a delivery. To this extent, he had to make his wa y back from the point of delivery. He is thus deemed to be within his duties. The basis of vicarious liability is simply to shift the liability of an employee to the employer. In this case, the liability shifts from Dave to Hurryhaste (Tan 2012, p. 96). Although Dave is seen to have breached certain rules with regard to using the vehicle improperly, it does not take away SheilaÃ¢â¬â¢s right to be compensated by Hurryhaste because her fault did not lead to the accident. Although Sheila did not have her seat belt on when the accident occurred, the blame for the accident does not fall on her. At the same time, it is not the purpose of vicarious liability to prove that she was not having her belt on at the time of the accident. In the case of Dave, as the statement goes, he has been highlighted as having been the one on the wrong. One element of the tort law is to establish if there was negligence on the part of an individual party in a case and the predictability of the same (Gray 20 11 p. 70). In the case of Dave, he was aware of traffic rules, which are to guide him in his driving. However, due to his negligence, he failed to observe traffic rules thus leading to the accident. The law is meant to prove that the person lacked reasonable care hence leading to a likelihood that the personÃ¢â¬â¢s negligent acts would lead to harm (Burns 2011, p. 665). Therefore, according to the rules of negligence and vicarious liability, Sheila and Karen should claim for injury and damage because, were it not have been for the carelessness of Dave and Manjit, the accident would not have happened. Their failure to observe rules and caution while driving was the sole reason for the accidentÃ¢â¬â¢s happening. If DaveÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter had been injured in the accident, chances are that the law on vicarious liability would still have applied because the van was not supposed to carry unauthorised passengers under traffic law. DaveÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter was one. Therefore, DaveÃ¢â¬â¢ s daughter as an individual party could claim for damages because HurryhasteÃ¢â¬â¢s agent would have injured her due to negligence (Tan 2012, p. 96). This case though would become complicated because Dave would be required by the company to reimburse it the expenses. On the other hand, the argument that might arise about ManjitÃ¢â¬â¢s employment status might be if a casual employee is regarded by the terms of the vicarious liability. By virtue of Manjit being a casual employee, it qualifies him to become an agent for Hurryhaste because he does duties on its behalf (Gray 2011, p. 69). Vicarious liability does not define an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s status, but simply addresses any person working as an agent for the employer. Negligence on the part of an agent is what leads to a tort. The claimant does not have the duty to find out the employment status of the offender before he or she can lay claim for damages that have occurred. On the other hand, breach of working rules does not affect the claimantÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit of compensation because it is not within his or her jurisdiction to determine whether the offenders were following rules when they caused the accidents. Therefore, Sheila and Karen are legally in order to claim compensation for both injury and damage from Hurryhusttle. References Burns, J 2011, Ã¢â¬ËRespondeat Superior as an Affirmative Defence: How Employers Immunise themselves from direct Negligence ClaimsÃ¢â¬â¢, Mitchigan Law Review, vol. 109 no. 4, pp. 657-681. Gray, A 2011, Ã¢â¬ËWhy Vicarious Liability Must be AbandonedÃ¢â¬â¢, Australian Business Law Review, vol. 39 no. 2, pp. 67-84. Jalil, M 2011, Ã¢â¬ËClarification of Rules of Acceptance in Making Business ContractsÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Politics Law, vol. 4 no. 1, pp. 109-122. Maharaj, K 2012, Ã¢â¬ËLimits on the Operation of Exclusion ClausesÃ¢â¬â¢, Alberta Law Review, vol. 49 no. 3, pp. 635-654. Tan, C 2012, Ã¢â¬ËAuthority, Vicarious Liability and MisrepresentationÃ¢â¬â¢, Sing apore Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 92-111.
Saturday, October 19, 2019
Animals Should Be Used in Scientific Research Essay Over 100 million animals are used every year in the United States as models in biological and medical research to study human disease, injury, development, psychology, and anatomy and physiology. Research involving animals has played a vital role in virtually every major medical advance of the last century. Even today, there is no complete alternative to biomedical research with animals. The vast majority of research animals are mice and rats bred for this purpose. Dogs, cats, and non-human primates together account for less than one-half of one percent of the total, and this number has declined for more than 25 years. Since 1979, the number of dogs and cats needed in animal research has declined by more than 50%. The number of non-human primates needed represents less than .2% (.18% in 2004) and has remained relatively constantÃ¢â¬âin the 50,000 per year rangeÃ¢â¬âfor the past decade. The history behind animals being used in scientific research is that is started In Europe and in the US by the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s and especially during and following World War I the benefits of animal research continued to be recognized. Following the Nuremberg Trials for atrocities by the NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s during World War II, society spoke loudly demanding no research on humans until animal research had made such research a reasonable risk. Today, the majority of people in our society do agree with the idea of the humane and responsible use of animals in research. There is safeguard standards for scientific studies on animals * The USDA has set forth federal regulations governing the care and use of animals in biomedical research that are considered even more extensive than those covering human research subjects. * The Animal Welfare Act sets standards of care for research animals with regard to their housing, feeding, cleanliness, ventilation, and medical needs and requires the use of anesthesia or analgesic drugs for potentially painful procedures and during post-operative care. * The US Public Health Service Act requires that all institutions receiving research funds from NIH, FDA, or CDC adhere to the standards set out in the Ã¢â¬Å"Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory AnimalsÃ¢â¬ . * Institutions must follow detailed animal care recommendations and establish an IACUC to ensure that all animals are treated responsibly and humanely Some people think that all animals that are in scientific research are in pain or distress while undergoing the research that is not necessarily true. The 2004 USDA Annual Report reveals that 57% of all research procedures with animals involved no more than slight or momentary pain or distress (i.e., an injection). In 34% of research procedures anesthesia and postoperative painkillers were used. In 9% of the procedures, neither anesthesia nor pain medication could be used, as they would have interfered with research results. Scientific Perspectives Here are 4 reasons why animals are used in research: 1. The principles of anatomy and physiology are true for humans and animals, especially mammals. Once scientists learned that animals were similar to humans, in physiology and anatomy, it became preferable to use animals rather than humans for preliminary research. 2. Certain strains or breeds of animals get the same diseases or conditions as humans. Ã¢â¬Å"Animal ModelsÃ¢â¬ are frequently critical to understanding a disease and developing appropriate treatments. 3. Research meant introducing one variable and observing the results of that one item. With animals we can control their environment (temperature, humidity, etc.), and shield them from diseases or conditions not related to the research (control their health). Although human and animals get the disease that may be the subject of a research investigation, the different life styles or living conditions make them poor subjects until preliminary research under controlled conditions has been done. 4. We can use scientifically-v alid numbers of animals. Data from one animal or human is not research; it is a case study. To scientifically test a hypothesis, an adequate number of subjects must be used to statistically test the results of the research. Some individuals claim that we should use human or animals that have a disease to study that disease. Certainly, epidemiological studies (tracking the occurrence of a disease or condition) have provided many important insights into the cause of a disease or a condition, especially when an environmental aspect is responsible. However, epidemiological studies are successful in only a limited number of situations. Only if the study of a disease is severely hindered or not possible when the research subjects have been/are exposed to a variety of environmental factors. According to the American Medical Association, humans are the most frequently used animal in research. However, research studies conducted on humans follow preliminary studies conducted in animals. These animal studies make human studies a reasonable risk. The animal studies are not a guarantee of success, but they do tell us that the human research has a reasonable probability of success. Animals Should Be Used in Scientific Research. (2017, Feb 09).
Friday, October 18, 2019
Urban economics - Term Paper Example Urbanization indicates the economic development of a country. Sustainable development is the need of the hour in all types of activities. Although the path of sustainability is a difficult one, yet it is approachable if pursued in an appropriate way. Sustainable transportation system ensures building of a society that acts as backbone, which supports economic growth through assisting people access their jobs and services easily. If the city is well-planned and laid out properly, urbanization will lessen the overall pollution levels and will preserve the surrounding areas, but unfortunately, most the cities set an example of haphazard development that has led to environmental degradation.This paper aims to examine the detrimental effects of transportation in enhancing global warming and ways to reduce it. The process of speedy urbanization due to growing population levels and their concentration in outsized cities have led to the sprawl of cities, as called by us Ã¢â¬Å" urban sprawlÃ ¢â¬ . These mega cities mark the most significant change brought about by human creatures. Cities form a network of linkages that expand ahead of their own boundaries causing environmental damages and their impacts outside urban areas. One of the most significant changes in natural environment is due to the urban transportation system. Increasing number of cars have provided immense facility to the individuals to access their jobs, educational institutes, shopping malls or any other place easily and on their own, but the flip side of this facility is the environmental damage brought about by the unsustainable transportation patterns. ROLE OF AUTOMOBILES IN GLOBAL WARMING Now days, automobiles are an essential part of daily life. They have shaped our culture and landscape. The industries that build cars serve as key part of the economy of the country. The automobile is not without its faults, but they often are concealed by the styling, performance and other features that make toda yÃ¢â¬â¢s vehicles so desirable. Still, when a product is so widely used, its faults can add up to massive unwanted side effects like global warming. Global warming is the most current environmental issue in many countries of the world. Motor vehicles play a major part in what scientists call the most serious environmental problem the world faces. The automobileÃ¢â¬â¢s main contribution comes from the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted as the engine burns fuel. The greenhouse gases are released from numerous sources that cause global warming. Any single contribution may seem small in proportion to the world total, but collectively it becomes a problem of vast scale. To address a problem of such vast scale requires international agreements and national policies. But making good on such commitments will require changes in how we manage every activity that contributes to the problem. The sources which contribute most to global warming should be identified in order to know that where and h ow much emission should be reduced.  The disproportionate impact of U.S. cars and light trucks An automobile which means personal motor vehicles, including light trucks such as pickups and vans emit roughly 10% of global (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels, which are the main form of greenhouse gas pollution. American automobiles have a disproportionate impact: U.S. cars are driven further each year and burn more fuel per mile than the international average. The United States has 5% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population and 30% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s automobiles, but it contributes 45% of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s automotive (CO2) emissions. In 2004, U.S. cars and light trucks emitted 314 million metric tons of carbon-equivalent (MMTc). That equals the amount of carbon in a coal train 50,000 miles longÃ¢â¬âenough to stretch 17 times between New York and San Francisco. In fact, the amount of (CO2) emitted from oil used for transportation in the United States is similar to the amount from coal used to generate electricity.  SHIFTING FROM PRIVATE TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT
Social Performance of Organizations - Essay Example The focus of the company has been restricted in the production and supply of oil related products and services. However, the company has been faced with several environmental challenges including the famous oil spills in the sea (Okbor, 2001, p. 23). The spillage caused the death over fifteen workers in the process. In spite of the challenges posed, the company does not have challenge with the volume of oil and gas produced but has been facing competition from other market related factors and companies. The major issue affecting BP is the failure to address major spillage catastrophe such as the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill. The spillage is a major environmental safety incident that affected the performance of the company. It led to negative publicity, which in turn affected the organization through suits such as the case of the company against the employees. During the hearing, the company pleaded guilty to 11 counts of felony and manslaughter. In addition, they pleaded guilty of two misdemeanors and one felony count for providing wrong information to the congress. Environmental safety is an issue that has affected the company negatively owing to the 2010 incident which created a negative perception. The pleading guilty of the company affected its public image and led to serious challenges in conducting business. In fact, the company spent a lot of money on fines and penalties which totaled to $4.5 billion in fines and penalty (Crane & Matten, 2007, p. 14). The amount is the large st in the company history. Despite the conclusion of certain cases, there is still challenge on the pending cases which are scheduled to end this year. In overall, the organization faces damages of close to 17.6 billion in the trial. The Deepwater incident of 2010 is a major catastrophe for the company in terms of business and the public image. The focus of the world today is on the protection of
Business-to-Business (B2B) and Business-to-consumer (B2C) - Essay Example Business-to-Business (B2B) and Business-to-consumer (B2C) are two types of e-businesses found on the Internet. E-commerce is an umbrella term used for all business done online but when close studied there are some technical differences which set of type of business apart from another. B2B is the business where both parties are organizations or companies working with each other for some kind of mutual benefit such as Skillbay.com. An example of this would be industrial suppliers or manufacturers who sell to a business that eventually takes final goods to the customers. Whereas most other sites would fall in the category of B2C since organizations are selling their services or products to consumers. Examples include Amazon.com and Walmart.com.The main difference between a B2B and a B2C is that of who purchases at the other end, whether it's the consumer or a business buyer as defined earlier. The other difference is the complexity of the business-to-business setup as compared to a busi ness to consumer setup. Supply chain management gets involved with in a business-to-business setup making the online process all the more complicated. And then there is also an issue of security that needs special consideration in business to business as compared to the business to consumer e-commerce. The other differences could be the negotiation and integration. Negotiation means bargaining prices and in case of business-to-business selling the most important thing is a negotiation.... While the business to consumer seems very easy as the any online retail store would just has to upload a catalog with prices and specification, the negotiation part involves another complexity within the business to business setup and that is of integration. There needs to be integration between the seller and the buyer system for effective business-to-business e-commerce to take place. At times, the buying company could not integrate with the selling company and vice versa which makes the transaction difficult to handle. Channel integration was also a problem for the business to consumer e-commerce in the earlier phase of e-commerce development as a lot of stores declined to connect their Web companies through the internal back office systems. Many companies rejected in an effort to build up a distinct Web unit and articulated much about the efforts of those who approached them as cannibalization of present sites. However, as it proved it was much of a fear than the actual eating up and companies like the Gap without delay adjusted to the new system in order to let customers do online transactions and in case of any default return the products back to the physical retailer. This opportunity and ease pulled out many fears of the customers of an online shopping system and in turn increased online sales as there could be more effective follow-up system online and the order management would be handled more effectively. This not only gave confidence to the online shopper but also increased the value of th e products and services they purchased. There are various ethical and legal regulations to follow when these businesses are started. Like any other business, online organizations have a responsibility towards their clients and this includes
Thursday, October 17, 2019
Open-door policy - Essay Example A key component of improving safety is to proactively identify hazards which when not removed, have potential to cause harm. EverybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s input is necessary to ensuring a safe environment for all. Sometimes, undesired events which under slight different circumstance such as time, speed or distance could have resulted in significant harm. These events are known as a near miss. Safety concern is any observed event or situation that if left unchanged, could result in an incident, maybe a near miss or accident. Lost time accidents (LTA) are accidents which could otherwise be avoided but did not hence resulting to an accident that cost the company money and time.These events and concerns can appropriately be reported to the supervisor who will forward to the company safety committee through the use of safety concern cards. The Near Miss/LTA/Safety Concern program is a "no blame" method of reporting potential hazards. The primary goal is to focus on preventing and minimizing future h azards. This provides an opportunity to fix the system before it breaks, recognize symptoms of broken processes, and recommend improvements to improve safety at the workplace. An employee will fill the safety concern card, which is readily available on bulletin boards and give it to the supervisor, who will review the safety concern to determine the root cause and add corrective actions that comply with OSHA practices (Moran, 2011). He/she will then contact safety team via safety representative, who will input data into safety reporting system.... Safety Director. Safety Concern Card A key component of improving safety is to proactively identify hazards which when not removed, have potential to cause harm. EverybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s input is necessary to ensuring a safe environment for all. Sometimes, undesired events which under slight different circumstance such as time, speed or distance could have resulted in significant harm. These events are known as a near miss. Safety concern is any observed event or situation that if left unchanged, could result in an incident, maybe a near miss or accident. Lost time accidents (LTA) are accidents which could otherwise be avoided but did not hence resulting to an accident that cost the company money and time. These events and concerns can appropriately be reported to the supervisor who will forward to the company safety committee through the use of safety concern cards. The Near Miss/LTA/Safety Concern program is a "no blame" method of reporting potential hazards. The primary goal is to focus on preventing and minimizing future hazards. This provides an opportunity to fix the system before it breaks, recognize symptoms of broken processes, and recommend improvements to improve safety at the workplace. An employee will fill the safety concern card, which is readily available on bulletin boards and give it to the supervisor, who will review the safety concern to determine the root cause and add corrective actions that comply with OSHA practices (Moran, 2011). He/she will then contact safety team via safety representative, who will input data into safety reporting system. The safety team will then provide technical assistance and also evaluate corrective actions to ensure regulatory compliance. Verbal report of injury policy From
Cultural communication - Coursework Example Code of dignity allows self-growth and Joanna accomplished it by breaking her relationship with Ted. Q3. Joanna Kramers story is similar to one of the cases in chapter 4 of Speaking Culturally, the cases of "M" and "K." To which one do you think it is most similar? Explain your answer in one paragraph. Joanna KramerÃ¢â¬â¢s story is similar to MÃ¢â¬â¢s case because there are a number of similarities found in both cases. Both the women are divorced and the divorce is because of their husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of communication. Communication barrier existed between both the married partners of both cases. Both categorize communication as close, supportive and flexible, which is negated by their husbands. According to Joanna Kramer and M, communication is entirely significant for uniqueness and growth of self. Both the women are of the opinion that self-identity is revealed because of personal growth, which is facilitated by communication, which should be close, supportive and flexible. Each person has a unique position in society and should be allowed to find his/her self in order to reveal his/her uniqueness. Q4. What is it about the story of the "scholarship boy" that resonates in Richard Rodriguezs life? What are some of the similarities between the life of Richard Hoggart, the scholarship boy, and the life of Richard Rodriguez? How does the fact that Hoggarts report is told in a story form help Richard Rodriguez identify with Hoggarts story? This should be answered in one paragraph. Richard Rodriguez being associated to Spanish culture by birth, has to make his position in his class after coming to a new culture. He finds similarities in himself and Richard HoggartÃ¢â¬â¢s the scholarship boy because they have to go through the same set of circumstances in order to attain the values of the other culture. According to Hoggart, the scholarship