Monday, September 30, 2019
Commerce cannot be denied to be an essential factor in the existence of one nation. This is so because commerce is considered as the backbone of economy. Being an indispensable aspect of economy, serious consideration has been taken to ensure the protection of those forming commerce. In the particular field of commerce, an existence of a business is considerably dependent on its name. A business name is a vital aspect of one business because it carries the reputation that has been built up by the business owner. A business name also has several values. Basically, it is used to distinguish a business from another. It will also ensure security and privacy as others cannot arbitrarily encroach or use it. Hence, businesses are required to be registered. The business name being registered is termed as trademark. In the world of commerce, where millions of business establishments evolve, trademark serves a vital role. With trademark, the goods of another are distinguished from that of another. Primarily, trademark serves as an identification of the origin and ownership of the product. Significantly, trademark will also protect the consumer from confusions as to the sources of the goods or services. Through time, some business owners were also established using the name of others. Some cases were deliberately done while other cases were unintentionally done. Due to acts of copying and using famous names, the other party suffered considerable damages. There were also case where famous trademarks or reputable names have been attached by other business owners in their products, goods or services primarily to attract or to deceive customers as to the origin of the goods or services. These situations have been considered as an impetus for the judicial actions of passing off and trademark infringement. Passing Off and Trademark Protection: Definition and Origin In distinguishing passing off and trademark protection, the two have a slim similarity in a way that both protect the businessÃ¢â¬â¢ privacy. It has also similarity as both are purposely to prevent other business owners from thefts or unauthorized use of business names of others. In addition, both empower business owners to instigate an action in court in cases others have violated their rights to their business name or trademark. Nonetheless, passing off and trademark protection have various differences as to elements, principles, protection, among others. Basically, passing off has no definite definition. However, it has been commonly defined based on Lord HalsburyÃ¢â¬â¢s statement in one of cases he decided which states that, Ã¢â¬Å"nobody has any right to represent his goods as the goods of somebody else. Ã¢â¬ Contrarily, trade mark has been defined in Trademarks Act 1994 as Ã¢â¬Å"any sign capable of being represented graphically which is capable of distinguishing goods or services of one undertaking from those of other undertakings. Ã¢â¬ Furthermore, word, design, letter, numeral, or shape of the goods or packaging may constitute trademark. As to origin, Passing off have been recognized by the common law as early as16th century. Few cases tried under passing off includes, Southern v. How and Dean v. Steel . After a century, another passing off case was tried by virtue of Blanchard v. Hill. Although, it was not at that time recognized as passing off, the principle laid down was severally used in many cases. Meanwhile, in Blanchard v. Hill, the plaintiff applied for an injunction to forbid the defendant from using the Great Mogul as a trade mark in the manufacture of the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s playing cards. However, Lord Hardwicke refused to grant injunction and reasoned out that the court has no basis to grant an injunction. Besides the court recognized the right of trader to bear a mark for his products or services but it stressed the absence of any instance that will support an injunction. Nevertheless, after several years, through the decision in Blanchard, it has been established that each proprietor has an exclusive right to the mark used in his goods or services offered for sale. In addition, it was interpreted that when the use of otherÃ¢â¬â¢s mark was stained with fraud, injunction can be granted. In the following century, the term Ã¢â¬Å"pass offÃ¢â¬ was used in Perry v. Truefit, and it was further interpreted and applied to mean that, Ã¢â¬Å"A man is not to sell his own goods under the pretence that they are the goods of another man. Ã¢â¬ In the early days, intent was considered as an essential element for passing off. However, in the 20th century cases, the element of intent was abandoned. On the other hand, trademark protection has its recognition in 1863 through Lord Westbury in Edelsen v. Edelsen. In this particular case, the court stressed that there exist a right to property in trade names which is transmissible and enforceable even against innocent infringement. Formally, trade marks were permitted to be registered under the Trade Marks Registration Act 1875. According to this act, anyone was barred from instituting an infringement proceeding provided that the trade mark was earlier registered. The act was further amended by Trade Marks Act 1995. For a mark to serve as a trademark, it must be distinctive by meeting any of the categories namely; arbitrary or fanciful, suggestive, descriptive, and generic. A mark is said to be arbitrary of fanciful if it has no logical relationship with the product it represent. An example is the trademark Ã¢â¬Å"NikeÃ¢â¬ which does not have logical relationship with shoes. The mark is suggestive if marks evoke or suggest the characteristic of the product like Ã¢â¬Å"CoppertoneÃ¢â¬ which is suggestive of sun tan lotion. A mark is descriptive if the consumers would associate it to the producer rather than on product or services such as Ã¢â¬Å"Holiday InnÃ¢â¬ . Lastly, a mark constitutes to be generic if it describes a general category, like Ã¢â¬Å"computersÃ¢â¬ . Difference Between Passing Off and Trademark Protection Fundamentally, the differences between the two lies on the protection it affords. In passing off, there is no property in the name or design of the business, while in trademark, the registered name or mark is the property being protected. In passing off, the law protects the ownership over the goodwill or reputation of one person which may be destructed by misrepresentation of other people regardless of intention. However, in trade mark protection, the law particularly protects the mark, name, or get- up which has been registered by a business owner. In other words, the property in passing off is the goodwill or reputation while the property in trademark is the trademark itself. Notably, there are three purposes for requiring marks to be registered. One is to guarantee to the consumers of the origin of the marked products or services to avoid the possibility of confusions and serves as a distinction of the goods of one from another having another origin. Second is to protect the customers from deception by other traders. Last purpose is to notify other traders or rival engaged in the same product or services from using the trademarks of another. Having the mark registered, the owner will draw various benefits. One of which is to put off people from using the trademark without permission. The owner can also initiate an action against unauthorized use. Finally, being a property of the owner, he has the discretion whether to sell or have it licensed by other people for a price. As to the acquisition of right, rights to property or goodwill in passing off are acquired in a gradual way because the business owner only builds his business reputation after a long period of time. This is so because a reputation or goodwill is dependent upon consumers, quality and service which necessitate handwork and persistence. Goodwill can also be established on the nature of the mark, degree of distinctiveness, figures of sales, expenses for promotions, marketing of the products and period of use. On the contrary, property right over the trademark and protection of such mark is acquired immediately upon registration. Moreover, goodwill cannot exist independently from the business which has created it even if such can be transferred or assigned to another. On the other hand, trademarks can be licensed or assigned separately from the business by the proprietor provided that such is not spurious or deceiving to the consumers. Furthermore, the two are distinct as to the remedy available in case of unauthorized use of the name or mark. In passing off, the claimant may institute a passing off action while trademark infringement is available in trademark protection. More specifically, a passing off action has been defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"remedy for the invasion of a right of property not in the mark, name or get-up improperly used, but in the goodwill likely to be injured by the misrepresentation made in passing off one personÃ¢â¬â¢s goods as the goods of another. Ã¢â¬ The former is a common law remedy while the latter is a statutory one. It is said to be a common law because it has its genesis from an unwritten law or fundamental practice in the olden days. On the other hand, trademark is statutory because the relief has been created by law or legislations by virtue of Trade Marks Registration Acts. Passing off and trademark protection also differ as to the elements that needed to be proven in seeking judicial intervention. Three elements are required to be satisfied in passing off action while trademark infringement only requires one. In passing off action, the claimant must prove the existence of claimantÃ¢â¬â¢s goodwill, the misrepresentation by the defendant, and the damage caused to the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s goodwill or reputation. To explicate further, goodwill is the whole benefit derived from a reputation and connection of a firm which has been built up operating honestly and lavishly expending money for a considerable year or period. Likewise, reputation is the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion on the product that may be associated with the symbol or name under which the product is being marketed. It is considered as a private personal property which is being sold to customer. Through goodwill or reputation, the inherent worth of the product is recognized and the loyalty of the customers to the product is developed. The second element which is misrepresentation must be material one and actionable that is capable of creating real or tangible damage to the plaintiff. Moreover, misrepresentation need not be intentional in order to succeed in a passing off action and any defense of innocence, negligence, or recklessness is not acceptable. Even fraud or malice cannot affect the action but will have effect on the penalty to be imposed. Under misrepresentation, it is necessary for the plaintiff to prove that the public is deceived or is made to believe that the defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s goods or business have been authorized or licensed by the plaintiff. The plaintiff must further prove that the customers, actual or prospective, are influenced by the misrepresentation. Since passing off safeguards the good will of the plaintiff, it is important that the misrepresentation being alleged is or had caused material damage to such property. Absence of a clear damage may result in the failure of the action. The damages, tangible or intangible, may be in the form of loss of sales due to confusion or dilution of the reputation. It may be observed that proving damages is difficult, but plaintiff may employ surveys and other statistical methods to show reliable evidence of damages. On the contrary, a claimant in a trademark infringement needs only to establish that the mark alleged to be infringing is deceptive as it is identical or similar with that of the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s trademark. The issue involved in passing off is Ã¢â¬Å"whether the use concerned is likely to affect adversely the goodwill of the business. Ã¢â¬ While injury or damage is necessary in passing off action, the defendant need not cause injury or damage in the case of infringement. It is only necessary that trademark is identically deceptive. This is because the trader considers the trademark as a property and is the only means whereby the manufacturer retains or invites the confidence of the public as to the quality and integrity of the product. From the given elements, it can be observed that it passing off protects the business as a whole which encompasses the name, get- up, style, mode, etc. of the business. However, in trademark infringement only protects the name or symbol of the business.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever character an individual has determines how successful the community he belongs to will beÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ these lines are indeed true with what the Ã¢â¬Å"Book of the CourtierÃ¢â¬ suggests. Authored by an Italian soldier, and a statesman attached to the court of the duke of Milan and later in the service of Duke Urbino, Baldassare Castiglione, the entire book dwells in a central theme which includes having graceful behavior, especially that of the impression of effortlessness or referred to by the book as Ã¢â¬Å"sprezzatura. Ã¢â¬ This series of four books deals so much on how an individual should train himself in discipline so as to be able to reach the best person he could in a way that he could contribute so much to his own community. In the case of this book, Castiliogne puts it in the personification of a perfect courtier. On the third book though, the story evolves on how a court lady should carry herself and thus be able to serve her master in a way that they will never have any point of despising her service. Being clever is quite a clear attitude pointed in this part of the book. In addition to this, the wide differences between male and female genders is shown with emphasis. One part of these series of stories talks about the individuality of each men as I may quote: Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be like the man who stripped down to his shirt and then jumped a shorter distance than he had in his greatcoat. So as far as I am concerned it is very fortunate that the hour is late, because as there is little time I shall have to say far less, and not having given the matter any thought, I will be excusable and allowed to say without being censured all the things that come to my mind. And now in order not to have to carry the burden any longer, let me start by saying that to recognize true perfection in anything is so difficult as to be scarcely possible; and this because of the opinions vary. Thus there are many who like to hear someone talking a great deal and who will call him an agreeable companion. Some will prefer reticence; others an active and restless man; others one who always acts with calmness and deliberation; and so everyone praises or condemns according to his own opinion, always Importance Placed on Individual or Society Page #2 camouflaging a vice under the name of a corresponding virtue; or a virtue under the name of a corresponding vice. Ã¢â¬ This lines shows how individual opinions affect how one person chooses to conduct himself in front of the other people in his community. Sometimes held in hindrance to what he really likes to do, a person chooses to succumb to what his society considers to be right and acceptable. Yet some choose to stick to what they believe in and dares to be different in some ways thus facing the judgment of his community men regarding his rather different being. Indeed, however a man chooses to deal with his own life defending his own beliefs as such, it will strongly influence his societyÃ¢â¬â¢s views on things. A real Ã¢â¬Å"perfect courtierÃ¢â¬ is referred to as someone who can direct his own way. Someone who would not allow his principles be cracked by people who aims to put his Ã¢â¬Å"service to his masterÃ¢â¬ into a lower state of excellence. A real noble man is the one who can decide for himself. From the smallest detail of how he should dress to the most complicated issue of how he should deal with his life. He that continuously struggles for his goals toward aspiring people. Someone who is able to measure his accomplishments with those of other people is the one considered to be truly successful. Everything must occur in such a reasonable way and with purpose. It is very important for each and every one of us to continue on pursuing our own goals to attain self excellence. As Sydney Bremer says in his book Successful Achievements: Ã¢â¬Å"In the assurance of strength, there is strength, and they are the weakest, however strong, who have no faith in themselves or their powers. Men often conquer difficulties because they think they can. Their confidence in themselves inspires confidence in othersÃ¢â¬ . This is indeed true specially in connection with the theme of the book of Castiglione. It is thus true that what a person does as a separate part of his community is directly linked to other people living with him. Man, as the very basic part of a certain society determines both the norms and the idealism a community considers to be true and acceptable. On the other hand, aiming for the best, as suggested by the ideas of Castiglione is concerned with how we embed ourselves with the positive traits that lead to self excellence and also eliminating negative characters which may Importance Placed on Individual or Society Page #3 hinder us from doing what we are supposed to reach as our aims in life. One of which is Ã¢â¬Å"sprezzaturaÃ¢â¬ which was translated in the modern English as Ã¢â¬Å"recklessnessÃ¢â¬ . It came from an Italian root-word Ã¢â¬Å"sprezzaÃ¢â¬ meaning contempt, disdain, or scorn. Having such attitudes wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t make any young courtier a successful one at that. On the contrary, it will just lead him to failure and distress. His goals of giving his best service will surely be a waste if he continues to cultivate this character in his everyday dealings. This is so much true even to an individual who strives to be the best in what he does. As a whole, as we could closely see, the Ã¢â¬Å"Book of the CourtierÃ¢â¬ shows so much emphasis on the kind of living of an individual person. From the positive traits he must posses to the negative attitudes he must omit from his system so as to be able to meet the goal of self excellence. Women also were given emphasis to have certain independence from the authority of men in some ways. Giving them the free will, freedom of speech and freedom in deciding for what they want with their lives. Yes, as this book has been set at a long time past in England, this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily mean that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any practical advise to the modern times we are presently living in today. Apparently, the contents of this book has a lot of advise enclosed for these generation which we are living in. As to what we could actually observe, many young people today lack the enthusiasm of actually establishing their own purpose in life. Sadly, only a few of the youth today endeavor to influence the community they are living in with positive contributions to the moral, spiritual, and even secular aspects of life in the society. Only a fewer percent of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s population really strive for the aim of having self-excellence. Yes, sometimes, its not bad to be a bit perfectionist with ourselves. Knowing our limits of course, perfectionism usually lead us to self-excellence. As one saying implies : Ã¢â¬Å"Make perfection your aim and be satisfied with nothing lessÃ¢â¬ . Yes, we must always remember to ask ourselves of what we ought to do as an individual, what we could improve on ourselves and thus be able to make a difference on the community we are living in. Not to be praised or to be renowned as a noble man, but to reach the reality of self-excellence. Sources: Castigliogne, Baldesar. The Book of The Courtier. Penguin Classics. 1967.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Innvations under Globalization in Latin America - Research Paper Example Business endeavor in the connection of neoliberal change is vividly outlined on account of Latin America inside the setting of the "Washington Consensus." The Washington Consensus was created throughout the last some piece of the 1980s. The thought behind it was to arrange strategy creators in the creating scene, and especially to help powerless Latin American economies recuperate from the obligation emergency. So dependent upon this, the defenders of globalization think of it as a positive sensation in all regards and the adversaries think of it as the dangerous component of local and national societies because of beating the free enterprise and the increment in financial and political sizes. Due to this, the outcomes of globalization on distinctive parts of human life and diverse matters lead to the disintegration of understandings. The point of this part is to inspect the connection between globalization and improvement. So first the idea of globalization and its source are audite d and after that for better examination of this connection, the impact of globalization on diverse parts of development might be dissected. The creators accept that globalization lessens development emulating the diminishment of assortment in diverse parts of the social order including monetary, social, political and social sizes and slant to coordination and union which has a negative impact on enhancement. The term "globalization" has not an agreeable importance and distinctive definitions are given to it affected by ideological foundations of analysts. Some think about globalization the same as correspondence unrest, different has thought of it as a manifestation of post innovation and some different has viewed it as another type of states without outskirt. The hopeful perspective to this sensation has thought of it as an element for development, peace and companionship and the vicinity of countries, likewise richness of endowments and the negative perspective equivalents it to e mergency neediness and the vanishing of powerless groups and unequal rivalry.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Final - Term Paper Example Analyzing some of the recent incidents it is quite evident that the terrorist attacks are increasing day by day and there occurs a number of causalities and death. The recent reports appeared in the media relating to terrorism is quite alarming. The suicide bombings which tolled the lives of about 70 people and more than 100 causalities in Yemen in two separate incidents on 9th October, the death of two dozen people in a suicide bomb attack in Baghdad, Iraq on 1st November, the murder of six guards riddled with bullets in Philippines on November 2nd this year, are some of the recent terrorist attacks. Analyzing the recent terrors in the world, it is quite visible that it is none other than the Islamic States who executed thousands of men in the Middle-East countries. They conduct massive attacks with latest weapons and have already conquered a major portion of this region. According to the media reports that appeared on 30th October, the Islamic State executed one-hundred and fifty Iraqi villagers, and threw their bodies into a mass grave. This incident is one among the deadly attacks of the Islamic State which form a parallel government in th e Middle East region now. ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) or ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) has been identified as a Sunni, extremist, jihadist group which proclaimed themselves to be a parallel state based on Caliphate and establishes its power in Iraq and Syria in the Middle East. It is often viewed as the true adherent of al-Qaeda and implemented the draconian Sharia law, which in reality curtailed almost all the freedoms of women folk. This law strictly suggests the women to cover themselves from head to toe, denies education, and even restricting the food items that women can purchase. When the U.S. troops in Iraq exercised strict actions to regulate these terrorist groups,
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Positive Train Control - Term Paper Example Implementation of PTC is anticipated to range over the total rail track mileage of 70,000. PTC is basically a technology of train control that is processor or communication based meant to reduce the frequency of collisions between trains, derailments upon over-speeding, attacks into the defined zones of work, and a trainÃ¢â¬â¢s improper movement through the main line switch. The systems of PTC are needed to execute various types of functions. There is a wide range of PTC systems that vary depending upon a number of factors that include but are not limited to the level of sophistication and complexity of the functionality and automation implemented by them, their wayside system which can be cab signaled, block signaled, or non-signaled, the kind of system architecture used, and the level of control they can achieve over the train. Use of the PTC system in the railroad industry has increased the safety of traveling by train manifolds. The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) support s all rail carriers that are required to install and implement the PTC system as per law and others that implement the PTC system voluntarily, by means of a mix of project safety measures, regulatory reforms, funds, and technological development. The final rule encompassing the requirements of PTC was published by FRA on 15 January 2010, whereas the final rule amendments were published on 27 September 2010 and subsequently on 14 May 2012. 41 railroads initially deposited the plans of implementation that were reviewed by FRA but denied the approval of all prior to the statutory deadline of 90 days for review. Upon the resubmission of all 41 implementation plans, FRA finally approved 24 unconditionally, 1 conditionally, gave provisional approval to 14 implementation plans that were deposited with the Notices of Product Intent that were supposed to be resubmitted along with a development plan of PTC in 270 days, while 2 plans were disapproved. However, the staff of FRA sustained workin g with them to formulate approvable plans. Currently, FRA is collaborating with two more railroads that were not identified before in order to formulate and deposit successful plans of implementation. The fundamental idea in PTC is that the safety of trainÃ¢â¬â¢s journey is enhanced by making it aware of its location and guiding it so that it stays on the right track. PTC achieves these functions by making use of networks of communication. Ã¢â¬Å"PTC systems are comprised of digital data link communications networks, continuous and accurate positioning systems such as NDGPS, on-board computers with digitized maps on locomotives and maintenance-of-way equipment, in-cab displays, throttle-brake interfaces on locomotives, wayside interface units at switches and wayside detectors, and control center computers and displaysÃ¢â¬ (Poor, Lindquist, and Wendt, 2009). This prevents the train from making unsafe movements. PTC systems can work in both signaled and dark territories and may a lso use the GPS to guide the train. One of the main goals of FRA is, Ã¢â¬Å"To deploy the Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System (NDGPS) as a nationwide, uniform, and continuous
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Management and Organisational Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1
Management and Organisational Behavior - Essay Example The other motivation I got in another internship was being given token gifts and allowances even though it was a non-paying internship. The allowances were not much but they meant everything to me and were a sign of the company appreciating my work. My current workplace where I have worked the longest motivates its employees through providing training to the best performing employees as well as having paid vacation leaves where the company provides even vacation packages for those with families which are fully paid. The employees never willingly leave the company and they have made the company excel in terms of increased profitability as well as gain a competitive advantage in the industry. Herzberg Two factor theory explains very well about motivation and the factors that can motivate the employees. According to the theory, there are two types of factors in any organization and these are the hygienic and the motivational factors. The hygienic factors are those employees cannot do without as their lack leads to dissatisfaction and their presence motivation. They include factors such as salaries, interpersonal relations as well as good working conditions (Brooks, 2010). The motivational factors, on the other hand, are rarely present in an organization but their presence satisfies and motivates the employees immensely. These factors are mostly ignored in many organizations but if used can bring a great difference in terms of performance increment. They include factors such as awards, recognition, and responsibility among others. The other motivational theory is the MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs theory. This theory has five levels which individuals have to pass before they completely become self-actualized. The completion of each of these levels is a motivation to move to the next level. These levels of needs
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Strategic Analysis - Research Paper Example Higher growth is positively related to rise in production by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s factory (Bloom and Perry, 379-396). Changes in the market interest rate also affect Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s earning per share. Earnings of Wal-Mart also experienced a fall due to the prevailing currency exchange rates. Wal-Mart is always affected by a strong dollar. The company also can significantly explain deflation. The products at Wal-mart are generally priced very low. The sellers experience a cost cutting scenario. So to reach the targeted price level, Wal-Mart influences the price mechanism which leads to deflationary pressures in the economy (Basker, 203-229). Wal-Mart is the largest retailer and thus its business operations are certainly influenced by various global forces. Global outsourcing has a huge impact on Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s Business. The purchasing power of the United States is greatly influenced by this retailer. Factors of production prevailing in the global markets also indirectly affect Wal-Mart. Production reformation all over the world has forced the global retaining giant to modify its own production structures (Basker, 203-229). Technological forces are vital for Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s success. Consumers prefer transacting via the internet and thus the retail market, particularly Wal-Mart, has seen a rise in its sales with the rise in the use of internet by consumers. Wal-Mart has always adopted innovative strategies of marketing through advertisement on their own website and different social media. The technological factors ensure that the targeted customers are identified easily. Wal-Mart has designed various policies and schemes with the help of the advanced technology to reach its customers (Singh, Hansen, and Blattberg, 457-476). Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability is affected by demographic factors. The structure of population greatly influences business operations of Wal-Mart. The stores of Wal-Mart are set strategically to cater to all kinds of customers; key customers are
Monday, September 23, 2019
Why people on goverment assistance should be drug tested to recieve assistance - Essay Example Pollack shows that in the states of Mississippi and Illinois, families receive varying benefits meant for poor families, especially single mothers. For example, in Illinois, the monthly based amount for the temporary assistances to needy families stands at 432 dollars compared to 170 dollars in Mississippi. The varying amounts received by poor families is seen a problem, additionally, there has been an increasing number of families requesting for benefits. Despite the rising problems of tackling increasing poor families, a number of states have introduced the idea of drug testing. This is an act whereby a member of the family requesting for benefits is put into test to ascertain if he or she is under drug influence. Pollack argues that the screening done by the government on families to receive benefits meant for poor does not address anything. According to the author, some states have achieved less or nothing despite their efforts to bring forth this matter of drug testing. The drug testing done on states like Michigan has failed or achieved less for the last 13 years according to the author. Additionally, legislators in Michigan are hoping that the act of drug testing for benefits is best and will be beneficial since it has been done in 29 other states. With the 29 states, 8 states have benefited from drug testing. According to Spencer, drug testing is currently undergoing in 28 states. The legislators in those states explain that drug testing must be done in order to lock out individuals requesting for benefits yet they are on drugs. In Oklahoma, the Republican Governor Mary Fallin explains that drug testing is done so as not to humiliate taxpayers. Parts of the taxes paid by the Oklahoma citizens are used to help the poor in terms of Temporary Assistances to Needy Families. The Governor explains that in order to avoid funding or subsidizing drug abuse by some of the individuals requesting for assistances from the government, drug testing must be done. This shows that legislators are supporting drug tests on those asking for government assistances based on the idea of drug abuse by those who benefit from the package. The governor of Oklahoma says that tests will be done and those who pass the drug testing are provided with the benefits while those who fail or refuse the test will be barred from getting the benefits until they reform. The process of drug test is also happening in Tennessee with the main focus being drug abuse by the individuals requesting for government assistance. Spencer also explains that drugs have brought problems to the society especially poor people. In addition, drug abuse is also problematic to the working class. There have been also increasing number of people requesting for help from the government to support themselves since the 2008 financial crisis. The fact is that there has been a rise in the number of the unemployed, cost of goods, housing and health care insurance. The government has to address all tho se cases with the help of funding. The idea of drug testing arises because high numbers of poor people in the society are drug users. Drug abuse can only be broken on those requesting for benefits if they are sure that they are to undergo the testing before they receive the benefits. Additionally, the government is fighting to address all the cases mentioned above and others like unemployment benefits. Millions of dollars have to be used in addressing those issues inclusive of drug abuse. In order to reduce these cases, drug testing is important as it is one way of reducing drug abuse. Additionally, taxes from tax payers will be channeled elsewhere like unemployment benefits and welfare benefits. Furthermore, Carpenter (1), explains that tighter budgets and high demands by the people from the
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Phaedrus as a Discourse on Rhetoric Essay PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue Phaedrus is primarily about rhetoric. It initially shows rhetoric through speeches about love, (230e-234d, 237a-241d)1 but in the second half, Socrates broadens the discussion, detailing the nature and proper practice of love and rhetoric, bringing the two topics together, and showing how each is necessary for the practice and mastery of the art. (243e-257b) The first major speech, by Phaedrus, parodies the style of Lysias, a popular rhetorician, deals with the relationship between youths and their older male admirers, lovers and non-lovers. In reply, Socrates accepts the basic topic, but develops and deepens several themes. Socrates follows this with a great recantation speech, filled with beautiful and powerful images. It is an allegorical myth, touching on the subject of true love and of the souls journeys, and reaching genuinely poetic heights. (237a-241d) Phaedrus is unlike other dialogues in that it is not a retelling of a days events. It is the direct exchange of Socrates and Phaedrus, with no other interlocutors. The reader sees this exchange first hand, as if witnessing the events themselves. Further, like natural conversation, the dialogue does not limit itself to a single subject. It glides from one topic to another. Phaedrus: The Dialogue versus the Limits of a Treatise: Phaedrus is a dialogue about rhetoric. It is a dialogue about love. It is also about the relationship between Socrates and Phaedrus, shifting conversationally from one subject to another, often moving through innuendoes and multiple entendres along the way. It is a human piece, as well as a study in different but interrelated topics. Using the dialogue form, Plato can intersperse themes in a ways unthinkable in a treatise. One key issues that he interjects is pederasty, love of a man for a youth. In a treatise on rhetoric, almost any such reference would be awkward; here, it becomes an added layer, highlighting much that is said. LysiasÃ¢â¬â¢ speech is expressly about pederastic relationships. (230e-234d) In his great speech, Socrates details the impact of pederastic relationship on the evolution of the soul. Discussion of pederastic love and ideals. (250a-258b) Throughout the dialogue, double entendres and sexual innuendo is abundant. Phaedrus flirts with Socrates as he encourages him to make his first speech. 235b, 236b-d) Phaedrus remarks that at noon-time that Socrates should not leave as the heat has not passed and it is straight-up, as they say. (242a) Socrates wishes to know what Phaedrus is holding under his cloak. (228d) And yet, role reversals between lover and beloved are constant. Socrates exhorts Phaedrus to lead the way at various times, (229b) and the dialogue ends with Socrates and Phaedrus leaving as friends, equals, not lover and beloved. (279b-c) They sit under a Ã¢â¬Å"chasteÃ¢â¬ tree (229a, 236e) often known as monks pepper, used to decrease sexual urges and believed to be an antaphrodisiac. Notably, Socrates sees the ideal relationship as asexual: the relationship is a form of divine madness, helping both lover and beloved to grow and reach the divine. (242a, 243a-b) Another, less notable topic that the dialogue keeps in play is the natural setting. After originally remarking that landscapes and trees have nothing to teach me, only people do, (230d) Socrates make several references drawing on the natural setting. (229b, 242a, 242b, 251b) He repeatedly invokes the presence and action of gods and nymphs. 230b, 241e, 278b) In a treatise, Plato could not make such references. This is clearly a work in which Plato knew how to use the dialogue form, and he used it thoroughly. To have presented this as a treatise would have been to give up much of the strength of this work. Phaedrus as an Ideal Conversation: Part of the effectiveness of Phaedrus lies in its sequence. It moves from PhaedrusÃ¢â¬â¢ reading of LysiasÃ¢â¬â¢ speech (228a-e) dealing with a foolish paradox of why it is better for a boy to give his favor to an older non-lover rather than to a lover, listing a range of reasons. 231-234c) Phaedrus is captivated with the beauty of this piece. Socrates fawns admiration, but when Phaedrus asks him not to joke, (234d-e) Socrates admits that he thought the speech poor: repetitious, uninterested in its subject, and pretentious. He can do better, (235a, 235c) and he does, not simply listing reasons, but developing an argument. All men desire beauty, but some are in love and some are not. Men are ruled by two principles: the inborn desire for pleasure, and an acquired judgment to pursue the best. 237d-238) Following different desires leads to different things, the most selfish being the uncontrolled enjoyment of personal beauty. One caught in this desire will want to turn his youthful beloved into whatever is most pleasing to himself, not what is best for the youth. (238c-240a) As wolves love lambs so lovers love their loves. (241d) At some point, right-minded reason will finally overcome the madness of love. (241a) By contrast, a non-lover, ruled by judgment, will focus more on what is good for the youth. (241e) The second half of the Dialogue is a critique of the first. Socrates assails rhetorical practice on various grounds, the key being the confusion of preliminary knowledge with creative power. No attainments will provide the speaker with genius; and the sort of attainments which can alone be of any value are the higher philosophy and the power of psychological analysis, which is given by dialectic, but not by the rules of the rhetoricians. (273d-e) Phaedrus and Proper Rhetoric Phaedrus claims that a good speechmaker does not need to know the truth of what he is speaking on, only how to persuade, (260a) persuasion being the purpose of oration. Socrates first objects that an orator who does not know bad from good will harvest a crop of really poor quality. (260d) Socrates says of speaking that even someone knowing the truth cannot convince people unless he knows the art of persuasion; (260d) but mastery of the art of speaking requires knowing the truth. (260e) Rhetoric, the art of persuasion, encompasses all speaking. (261e) To persuade an audience one must approach them by using similarities. To do this, one must know what things are similar and different. A person lacking this knowledge, cannot make proper comparisons. (262a-c) To master the art of rhetoric, one must recognize the division between objective subjects (iron, silver), and emotive subjects (love). (263b) Lysias failed to make this distinction, and accordingly, failed to even define what love itself is in the beginning; the rest of his speech appears random, and is poorly constructed. (263e-264b) Socrates then goes on to say, every speech must be put together like a living creature, all parts fitting together as a whole work. (264c) By contrast to LysiasÃ¢â¬â¢ failed effort, SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ great speech starts with a thesis and proceeds to divine love, and setting it out as the greatest of goods. He shows how a true rhetorician must determine the nature of the hearerÃ¢â¬â¢s soul, just as medicine must determine the nature of the body. The skilled rhetorician must know the different types of souls and how they are moved. (271a-272b) The truly skilled speaker chooses a proper soul and sows within it discourse capable of helping itself as well as a the man who planted it, which produces a seed from which more discourse grows in the character of others. Such discourse makes the seed forever immortal and renders the man who has it happy as any human being can be. (276e-277a) To be a good rhetorician, then, one must know the truth of what he is speaking and how to analyze it to something indivisible. One must understand the nature of the soul and what sort of speech is proper to each soul. Only with all these points mastered will he be able to use speech artfully, to teach or to persuade. This is the point of the argument they have been making. 277c-278b) The Failure of Rhetoric in Athens and in Modern LifeÃ Having set forth the requirements of true rhetoric, Socrates says, the truth is of no import in a law court, but rather the convincing; rhetoric, people claim, consists of cleaving towards the likely and should leave the truth aside. However, as it has already been determined that only people that know the truth can properly use the art of the likely, this popular opinion is decided to be clearly wrong. (273d) Similarly, he decries the growing dependence on writing. Socrates doubts the value of writing. It cannot teach, but can only remind those that already know what writing is about. (275d-e) Furthermore, writings are silent; they cannot speak, answer questions, or come to their own defense. (275e) By contrast, the best rhetoric is a dialectic process, a living, breathing discourse of one who knows, of which the written word can only be called an image. (277b-c) The one who knows uses the art of dialectic rather than writing. Plato offered these criticisms about the misuse of rhetoric more than 2,000 years ago. How much more forceful are they in the modern day and age?
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Not a Privilege, but a Right Essay The times are ripe for civil disobedience. Not a full year ago was the act of defiance by the populace of Myanmar and their subsequent bloody repression displayed before the televisions around the world, sparking outrage and sympathetic demonstrations. The streets of Pakistan were also filled with protests, first against a President who would let an advocate of justiceÃ¢â¬âa Supreme Court JusticeÃ¢â¬âto be thrown to the jails for pursuing his conscience, and then again for the same PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt to perpetuate his rule through an act of Ã¢â¬Å"emergency ruleÃ¢â¬ . The world is now again made witness to a wave of international protests, sparked by violent protests by Tibetan secessionists and their repression by the Chinese government. Everywhere in the world, these acts of assembly and disobedience are criticized or hailed as acts of free expression based on the then-current sentiment. Many times, these same democracies that hails the voice of liberty and sound judgment and rule, condemn protests and demands for redress as Ã¢â¬Å"anarchistic in characterÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"break the order and thus inconvenience the publicÃ¢â¬ . Generally, if without the backing of any government, a protest is localized, and belittled as an act of unnecessary activism. Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. , though living in different periods of history, fought under similar demeaning circumstances, and faced similar opposition from their government. They asserted that the act of civil disobedience was a God-given right granted to people to correct the fatal defects of government. Their separate acts of defiance were considered Ã¢â¬Å"illegitimately bornÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"with malicious intentÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"unwise and untimelyÃ¢â¬ ; these same categories echo now in the criticisms of our movements. For their sakes, then: what constitutes a valid exercise of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s will? Studying Thoreau and KingÃ¢â¬â¢s works, that is, on the Duty of Civil Disobedience and Letter to a Birmingham Jail, respectively, we can identify two primary characters of a legitimated act of defiance: a legitimated cause and legitimated means. Legitimated Cause Why did we choose the term Ã¢â¬Å"legitimatedÃ¢â¬ rather than Ã¢â¬Å"legitimateÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"lawfulÃ¢â¬ , in characterizing a valid act of the people? This is due to the fact that the act of defiance, seeks as its purpose the overthrow of the unjust system of government. In Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s time, this was the segregation between Ã¢â¬Å"whitesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"blacksÃ¢â¬ , which though inherently unjust, was nevertheless valid under passage of law. If one were to require a Ã¢â¬Å"lawfulÃ¢â¬ cause, it would bar any protest against any injustice that is protected under the mantle of law. The cause is Ã¢â¬Å"legitimatedÃ¢â¬ not because of its opposition to any system, but because the system lost its mantle of legitimacy by its promotion of injustice. Thoreau wrote that if a system causes some injustice to be inflicted though it is merely incidental in its application, one would be unjust to apply a level of severity to attack it, for eventually the system will soon be smoothened out and these flaws corrected. If, however, the system compels one to cause injustice to another, then the system may be validly attacked. This is to say that in all governments, flaws are to be expectedÃ¢â¬âin fact, the imperfection of the system of government lies within the need, at all, of a system of government. In view of this, Thoreau stressed not the need for a no-government, as he believes the people to be unprepared for this event, but at once a better government, which does not promote injustice and does not speak for the stronger few. The legitimated cause of a civil disobedience is dependent on the measure of injustice inflicted by the present system of government the act is made to oppose. King further elucidated this by expounding on St. Thomas AquinasÃ¢â¬â¢ expression that an Ã¢â¬Å"unjust law is no lawÃ¢â¬ . There are two ways by which a law is made unjust: if it is made contrary to natural and divine law, or, if in consonance to it, it is implemented as to make it unjust. A government, then, that enacts a law ordering the execution of every second son of every family violates the natural law against murder, promotes its agent to violate the same, and is consequently unjust. Likewise, if a government would inflict a severe punishment for the infidelity of a wife yet will only inflict a punitive penalty for the same committed by the husband, by virtue of its disproportionate application of justice the government would likewise be unjust. This injustice, then, must be inherent within the system, and so prevalent as to inflict the severity of oppression. If, however, the system is merely suffering Ã¢â¬Å"momentary lapsesÃ¢â¬ of injustice that are incidental to its improper application, the system could be corrected without the use for excessive violence, and hence, disobedience. For example, a government erroneously enacts laws as to regulate traffic when in effect such traffic is worsened; this is no cause for civil disobedience. If however, the same law was enacted to provide for a path reserved for Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ people, as opposed to those of other races, then the system is inherently unjust. Legitimated Means The qualifying word Ã¢â¬Å"legitimatedÃ¢â¬ is also as important here as it was in qualifying the proper cause. For any act of civil disobedience to a system is, by nature, unlawful; as paramount to a governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s duty is to make sure that its people will follow laws, however unjust it may seem to be. Dura lex, sed lex. The law, however harsh in its implementation, remains the law. Besides, which, it is in the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest that these laws are followed, as these inherently perpetuate their power. King opined that oppressors, in light of historical precedent, would not voluntarily give up their power. Nevertheless, the act of disobedience is legitimated in light of the injustice inflicted. As Thoreau explained, when something is stolen from a man, or injustice inflicted on him, he will not content himself with exhausting all lawful procedures provided for him by law; he will only be satisfied upon the return of the stolen item, and consequently his vindication. The two civil advocates differ only in the interpretation of the purpose of legitimated means: Henry David Thoreau, believing fully that the State is unjust from its inception, considers his act (in this case, the non-payment of a poll tax) as one of exclusion; he will not be part of a system that promotes injustice, in this context the propagation of slavery and the aggression inflicted on the Mexican War. King, however, considers this act of civil disobedience as an act of inclusion, and recognizes its unlawful nature and is willing to suffer its consequences. In this act, however, he hopes to unmask the oppressiveness of the system and its persecution of the advocates of equality and free expression. This distinction is further substantiated in KingÃ¢â¬â¢s denunciation of two other camps: one that would do nothing in the face of oppression, and another that would set itself against the State and employ violent action. A proper legitimated means is one that will exhaust methods of petition provided by the State, and, having been refused, act in defiance of the system in order to promote tension and force the State to negotiate. This formula of defiance has been employed by the likes of Nelson Mandela, Mohandas Gandhi and Aung San Suu Kyi. Conclusion: Not a Choice, but an Obligation. A final word remains of civil disobedience: Thoreau warns that those who do not stand in opposition to a system that promotes injustice will necessarily aid it, and participate in it. This is the concept of collective guiltÃ¢â¬âthe nation is naturally responsible for excesses inflicted upon it by the government, in their silent acquiescence to its measures. Those criticizing the untimeliness and impropriety of civil disobedience can well be reminded KingÃ¢â¬â¢s remarks that a revolution, and an act of civil rights will never be timely, and will never be proper in the eyes of the oppressive government. Those who passively let their rights be trampled upon are equally guilty of the oppression inflicted on them. This is a harsh truth, but it remains the truth: the State will not provide for an individual who Ã¢â¬Å"sleeps on his rightsÃ¢â¬ . So long as the people are deficient in fighting for their cause, the State will, by virtue of the previous maxim, take what it can in the name of the few and escape with impunity.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Examining The Social Structure Theories In The Economy Criminology Essay Social structure theories assert that the disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crime.Ã The theories state that neighborhoods which are lower class force of strain, frustration and disorganization that create crime (Shanali-Justicia). Social Disorganization, Strain Theory and Culture Deviance are a few of the social structure criminology theories that are used to explain crime. Other social theories that fall into this category are Culture of Poverty and the truly disadvantage theory. The theory of social disorganization is that crime and delinquency is caused when communities fail. There is a breakdown of families, church, schools and government in the community. Social disorganization theorizes that these relationships reinforce positive behavior, a sense of community responsibility and concern for the social network within a close area (Hardy, 2010). When these relationships breakdown or do not exist the communities and its inhabitants lose its sense of structure and this is believed to be the causation of crime and delinquent behavior. The cycle of Social Disorganization is thought to start with poverty, where there is lack of opportunities and racial discrimination. The lack of opportunities breaks down the social institutions and organizations and this leads to the erosion of traditional values. This breakdown leads juveniles to seek the acceptance from peers and a sense of belonging from gangs. Once these gangs form there is a loss of social control or it b ecomes less effective. When this control is lost neighborhoods become more prone to crime and this detracts from investors which reduces opportunities in the community. Eventually this becomes the norm and this way of life is passed onto the next generation. The formation of criminal careers if formed and the cycle continues for some while others grow out of their delinquent phase. Populace in these disorganized areas can feel neglected, frustrated and ostracized from the economic mainstream, they develop feelings of hopelessness and anger which sociologist state are signs of strain (Siegel Welsch, 2008, p. 89). This strain develops and theorist state it leads people to commit criminal offenses, because they lack the opportunities for success. The opportunity for a better life seems to be beyond their reach, so people turn to deviant behavior to achieve their goals because they feel that society has let them down. Cultural Deviance Theory is a combination of both the effects of social disorganization and strain. It is thought that the lower socio-economic populaces create an independent subculture where they have their own rules and values. Juveniles in lower class neighborhoods adapt to their environment, they become cynical and have no respect for authority. Conventional values make little sense to a youth whose role models may include gun runner, drug deale rs and pimps (Siegel Welsch, 2008, p. 91). Teachers and other authority figures become secondary citizens to these juveniles and they cannot conform to the rules as other members of society do. These juveniles experience a form of culture conflict as a result they never achieve their goals and eventually get caught up in the life of gangs and deviant behavior. The populace of this poverty culture is marked by frustration of their environment. There is a lack of trust of police and government and this mistrust stalls people from this environment from seeking other advantageous opportunities or ones that are available to them. The results of this environment are depression and possibly psychological issues. Inner-cities that suffer from economic changes have an increase of crime; they become ingrained in a cycle of poverty, unemployment and crime. These people are considered the truly disadvantage living in communities with poorly organized social networks, alienated populations and high crime (Siegel Welsch, 2008, p. 85) Theorists such as Clifford Shaw, Henry McKay, and Robert Merton have similar views on social structure theories. While Elijah Anderson believed that juveniles committed crimes because of their socio-economic living conditions there were rendered incapable of achieving success (Siegel Welsch, 2008, p. 92). A juvenile turned to crime because it was their only way of achieving success. They feel that their only option is to join gangs and engage in behavior that is deviant. Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay believe that delinquency is mainly the consequence of a collapse of institutional, community-based controls (Wong, 2009). Shaw and McKay believed that people that lived in situations such as these responded to the disorganization of their environment. They believe that delinquent behavior was a result of social disorganization, because the neighborhoods they lived in were transitional neighborhoods. This was an area where there was a shift in population; the middle class neighborhood would transition to a mixture of lower class people. When this transition would occur the family would become rooted in the neighborhood and the values that they developed such as belonging to gangs and criminal behavior would be passed onto the next generation. Similar to Shaw and McKay, Robert Merton believe that society was the cause of deviant behavior, because society put pressure on people to achieve the American dream. Merton believed that society expected an individual to conform or either work within its structure. When a person cannot conform they become members of a deviant subculture. Merton argued that upper class children are less likely to commit delinquent acts because they have the means and ability to obtain an education and stable employment. While lower class juveniles do not have the same means they feel the social and psychological strain or anomie. Merton believed this condition caused juveniles to commit criminal acts to achieve their goals and even if they were offered the means to achieve these goals legally, they would reject those acceptable means of deviant ones (Siegel Welsch, 2008, p. 89). The theory that I most associate with my belief that juveniles commit crimes is the based Cultural Deviance theory. I think that juveniles conform to their environment and as a result have a lower set of goals and values than those of society. Juveniles that grow up in lower economic levels become hardened in their environment and develop an outer shell that shows no fear and have accepted because they play hard they will probably die young. These juveniles do not hesitate to use violence to get the message across nor do they consider the consequences of their actions. The goals that these juveniles set for themselves are reaching the top level in their gangs and increasing their drug sales. These juveniles cannot understand the concept of hard work and setting realistic goals like other members of society and because they fail to achieve success in life they are quick to blame the man for their failures.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Protecting Yourself Online In this paper we will discuss some basic steps to better secure your system. We will discuss the following four (4) areas: vÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Email vÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Internet vÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Chat Programs vÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Virus Protection 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Email: Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Do not open any email attachment that you receive from anyone without checking first - not even from your closest friends. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If someone has to send you a doc file ask them to convert it into *.rtf or *.txt format and then send. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If you must open any doc extension files, you can first use one of those doc file readers available free on the net. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Alternatively, you could convert the extension of the file (doc) to text (txt) and then open it with your text editor and see what the file is all about. Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If you do decide to open it as a doc file in MS Word ensure that the macro security setting is set to HIGH Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In your email client turn off the 'receiving HTML mails' option. 2. Internet vÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Set Explorer to show file extensions. For this go to Windows Explorer/ My Computers > Tools > Folder Options > View (tab) > and uncheck the Ã¢â¬ËHide File Extension For Known File TypeÃ¢â¬â¢ box. This will help you to avoid clicking on hoaxes. vÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Do not give out your information on the net. While surfing the web you will see that there are sites that will ask for your personal information. Do not give information about yourself and hide out information about yourself as long as you can. vÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Disable JAVA and Active X. To do this under MS IE, move your default-browsing zone to High security in Tools-Internet Options. This switches off 90% of MSIE exploits. You don't have to enter the sites that don't let you enter without Java and Active X enabled. Know how to read cookies and take a close look at them. Use software like cookie crusher and every time you log online crush all your previously received cookies. If you use IE then make sure that you run Windows Update at least once a week. vÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Use personal firewall software. Zone Alarm (ZA) is a good one but others are available and new ones are coming up everyday. Use at least one Intrusion Detection System; Visual Zone is a good one that is compatible with ZA. 3. Chat Programs ÃËÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Beware when using chat programs like IRC, ICQ, Yahoo, etc. When using these programs, your IP address is exposed leaving room for the other person to scan your computer looking for ways to break in.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
1. The three components of the American System were establishing a new protective tariff, starting a new transportation system and restoring the national bank. Henry Clay thought that each of these components would strengthen and unify the nation because he thought the American system would unite the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economic resources because the south would grow food and raise animals that the north would eat and in return the south would by the manufactured goods the north made. A new transportation system would allow trade between the north and the south. Now America could finally become independent economically. And the tariff would help because during the War of 1812 British merchants brought a great deal of products to the United States and sold them at much lower prices than American made goods, so the tariff would raise the prices of the British goods so the American merchants could sell their products at a lower price. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2. Female workers in Lowell, MA can be compared to slaves in the south in many ways but they are also very different. The conditions that the women in Lowell and slaves had to live in were very unsanitary and unbearable. The woman even felt like slaves. They were constantly watched as were slaves and they were also forced to go to church. Unlike slaves they were paid, even though they were paid very little because they could do the work of a man but get paid less, they still got paid. They had choices of what jobs to do where slaves were assigned to certain jobs. The women got some free time and even a 30 minute lunch break while slaves had very little or no brakes at all. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 3. While John Marshall was chief justice the Supreme Court promoted the idea of nationalism. In the Supreme Court case Gibbons vs. Ogden help make certain that the federal government had power on pretty much everything crossing any state lines. Another case also supported the national government over the state government, it was McCulloch vs. Maryland. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 4. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy followed and promoted the idea of nationalism between 1825 and 1825 by making a treaty with Great Britain to trim down the number of military fleets at the Great Lakes. Also the Rush-Bagot Treaty made America and Canada remove all their troops from their shared border. John Adams also held the convention of 1818, which made a compromise with Britain to share the Oregon territory. Nationalism and Sectionalism :: essays research papers 1. The three components of the American System were establishing a new protective tariff, starting a new transportation system and restoring the national bank. Henry Clay thought that each of these components would strengthen and unify the nation because he thought the American system would unite the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economic resources because the south would grow food and raise animals that the north would eat and in return the south would by the manufactured goods the north made. A new transportation system would allow trade between the north and the south. Now America could finally become independent economically. And the tariff would help because during the War of 1812 British merchants brought a great deal of products to the United States and sold them at much lower prices than American made goods, so the tariff would raise the prices of the British goods so the American merchants could sell their products at a lower price. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2. Female workers in Lowell, MA can be compared to slaves in the south in many ways but they are also very different. The conditions that the women in Lowell and slaves had to live in were very unsanitary and unbearable. The woman even felt like slaves. They were constantly watched as were slaves and they were also forced to go to church. Unlike slaves they were paid, even though they were paid very little because they could do the work of a man but get paid less, they still got paid. They had choices of what jobs to do where slaves were assigned to certain jobs. The women got some free time and even a 30 minute lunch break while slaves had very little or no brakes at all. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 3. While John Marshall was chief justice the Supreme Court promoted the idea of nationalism. In the Supreme Court case Gibbons vs. Ogden help make certain that the federal government had power on pretty much everything crossing any state lines. Another case also supported the national government over the state government, it was McCulloch vs. Maryland. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 4. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy followed and promoted the idea of nationalism between 1825 and 1825 by making a treaty with Great Britain to trim down the number of military fleets at the Great Lakes. Also the Rush-Bagot Treaty made America and Canada remove all their troops from their shared border. John Adams also held the convention of 1818, which made a compromise with Britain to share the Oregon territory.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
There several critical aspects in storage area network (SAN) management. These aspects range from changes in every day configurations to physical-asset inventory to historical reporting in the long-term. Perhaps the most important element in SAN management is documentation (Poelkar & Nikitin, 2009). Keeping track of all connections such as the host bus adaptors (HBAs) to the servers can prevent problems of failures in SAN functionalities. There are usually several connections in SAN networking and memorizing all the connections can be challenging. Keeping a record and clear documentation on all the SAN components as well as their status of functioning can solve this problem before things go astray. Documentation will include all software configurations and hardware connections (Poelkar & Nikitin, 2009). Because SAN forms an integral part of computing infrastructure, all procedures and practices employed in tracking network components and severs should be applicable to SAN too. SAN security is another important aspect of SAN management. In order to optimize the overall SAN performance, it is advisable to keep off all the viruses, malaware, hostile and attackers. Integrating powerful antispyware, antivirus, malicious website filters and client firewalls into a single powerful engine will provide robust SAN security and enhance efficiency. The combination of these tools minimizes on system resources and enhances high system performance. Above all, the network is protected. SAN security is critical to SAN management as it avoids loss of sensitive and important data (Poelkar & Nikitin, 2009). The other key management aspect of SAN is the cost of SAN implementation (Norris, 2003). While considering the effectiveness of implementing SAN security, and optimizing the speed and workability of SAN, it is critical to consider tools that can provide the same benefits at a lower price (Norris, 2003). The essence of any business is to make profits. However, since SAN implementation is important, it is necessary to implement but at affordable cost. SAN management is critical to the functioning of SAN and it attempts to address the aspects of security, cost and functionality. SAN software can manage most of the processes and elements needed for proper working of SAN. The SAN management software ensure maximum security and low computer resource usage in terms of random access memory (RAM) thus improving speeds.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Drawing examples from any one Caribbean territory and using public opinion data from sources , to what extent is political culture less dependent on local culture as a result of recent technological developments. Ã¢â¬ Political culture is the particular set of orientations, beliefs, customs, and preconceptions which are shared by members of the society, which give meaning to their political process, and which provide the underlying assumptions that govern their political behaviour and public policies (Lawrence 6).On the other hand we have local culture, which Karen Lawrence describes as the history, family, politics, landscape, art, music and values and people melded into a sense of place that feels vibrant and cohesive and firmly rooted. Local culture is where and how one is connected to life and each other; it is the collective memory of a community. What is technology might one ask? Technology is the use of tools or instruments for any human activity.These human activiti es can be production, storage, exchange, transportation or even consumption. It is the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life society and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial engineering,Ã appliedÃ science,Ã andÃ pure science. Politics is an area which manifests may aspects of our culture and in these modern times, political culture in the Caribbean territory of Jamaica has become dependent on recent technological developments.Globalization is a process of interactions and integration among people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic development and prosperity, as well as human physical well-being in societies around the world.Due to globalization, money, goods and manufacturing have become m ore mobile than they once were, and as a result corporations and businesses are allowed to finance, invest and move wherever they choose, they have a wider access to other countries across the world. There is a shift in the balance of power between international businesses and governments. National governments are less able to control the activities of mobile businesses than in the past, while corporations and financial institutions are in a better position to dictate to national governments.They do this by, purchasing the currencies of states whose policies they approve and abandoning, or threatening to abandon the rest. In 2003, JamaicaÃ¢â¬â¢s debt stood at $4. 4billion owing to the IMF, the debt required that 52 cents of every dollar earned goes for interest payments. By this time Jamaica had already paid back 17 times the amount of money originally borrowed. Farming and industry have been in crisis. There was a very high unemployment rate and there has been migration from the rural areas to Kingston, people in search of jobs and opportunities.There was an increase in crime and drug trade, which in turn have led to frequent police killings. Political violence and rioting has been seen in recent years. Responsible in part for this unrest and turmoil is globalization, ensnaring the country in enormous debt arranged by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank, and other international lending agencies at high interest rates. Ã¢â¬Å"The structural adjustments that were imposed by the IMF had cause for an increase in interest rates to industry and farmers, so that they could no longer compete with the flood of subsidized or Ã¢â¬Å"dumpedÃ¢â¬ foreign imports.These policies have driven down wages and forced the government to cut back funding for education, healthcare, and agricultural programs which benefit the poor (Harper 2003). Ã¢â¬ Again due to globalization there was civil unrest and mayhem in Jamaica. In 2009 there was an extradition requ est from the USA for Christopher Ã¢â¬Å"DudusÃ¢â¬ Coke, a drug kingpin who enjoyed demigod status in the west Kingston stronghold of Tivoli Gardens. The United States wanted him for drug trafficking and gun trade.The then ruling party, the Jamaica Labour Party did not want to give up Mr. Coke, as he had close ties with the party. This included a construction company called Incomparable Enterprises, where Dudus was a partner, was awarded three government contracts by the JLP valued at $US 400 thousand, also a contract worth US $150,000 to transport materials to Riverton City landfill. Also the JLP was also responsible for campaigning and establishment of the Ã¢â¬Å"garrisonÃ¢â¬ known as Tivoli. The USA said that they would cut all ties with Jamaica if Mr.Coke was not extradited. Jamaica depended on the US for money and imported products. Jamaica could not afford to lose AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s support, as so in turn, Dudus was extradited. This is a clear example of the influence of gl obalization. According to Alec Ross, one of the creators of technology policy for Barack Obama's 2008 presidential campaign, Ã¢â¬Å"We are well beyond being able to consider social media a fad. If you are not open to social media spaces then you are not attuned to the dynamics on the street and you sacrifice both understanding and power. The emergence of Social Media has caused for the political culture in Jamaica to be less dependent on local culture, due to this recent technological advancement. In 2007 statistics showed that 539. 543 per 1,000 peopleÃ in Jamaica used the internet, in 2005 3,042,000 people in Jamaica were telephone subscribers. Also in 2007 there were 2,700,000 mobile phone subscribers and 444. 079 per 1,000 people in Jamaica who had radios. In 2002, 70. 04% of households in Jamaica had televisions. These numbers are rising every year, with social media becoming more popular as the years go by.In Jamaica there are 7 local television channels; the two main local channels being CVM and TVJ (Gordon 89). These channels no longer focus on what is going on locally in the country or show many locally produced shows. The time slots for these stations are filled with American based television shows, cartoon and movies. The local news also doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t focus on what is happening in the country each day, but only gives us a brief overview and then skips to Ã¢â¬Å"international newsÃ¢â¬ updating the public on what is happening in places such as USA, Canada, Asia and South America just to name a few.It is speculated that in Jamaica, the people know more about what is going on in America than they do about what is happening in their Ã¢â¬Å"own backyard. Ã¢â¬ In Jamaica during election time, the political parties use the media as a way to voice their opinions of the other parties and also articles and pictures are published in order to persuade voters to vote for a particular party or to persuade the public to vote in general. The media also help s with political socialization, this is the process by which people form their ideas aboutÃ politics and acquire political values, the two main political arties in Jamaica being the Jamaica Labour Party and the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s National Party. Social media currently plays a huge part in the political culture of Jamaica. Jamaica tries to emulate the political culture of the United States of America that is using social media forums which include facebook and twitter as a way to promote political parties instead of sticking the usual means of newspapers and new channels. As technology develops, politics has to develop along with it.An example of this is seen by the creation of a facebook page called Ã¢â¬Å"Young JamaicaÃ¢â¬ which is an affiliate of the Jamaica Labour Party. The purpose of the page is to inform JamaicaÃ¢â¬â¢s youth about the JLP and to promote this party over the PNP. It encourages young Jamaicans to get enumerated and it also highlights the failures of the PNP and its members. Another example of social media forum is the seen by the creation of a facebook page called Ã¢â¬Å"Blame BruceÃ¢â¬ which is an affiliate of the PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s National Party blaming past Prime Minister Bruce Golding for problems in Jamaica.There was also a Ã¢â¬Å"hashtagÃ¢â¬ on twitter called Ã¢â¬Å"Blame BruceÃ¢â¬ . The Jamaican political culture is less dependent on the local culture. The most recent instance of the local culture being brought into politics was due to the Jamaica 50th celebration on August 6th 2012, Jamaica was an independent nation for 50 years. Due to technological developments, the political culture of Jamaica is less dependent on local culture. Globalization and Social media have had a huge effect on the political culture, as these seem to have more of an influence than the local culture.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Before the twentieth century, it would have been incorrect to speak of the Igbo as a single peopleÃ¢â¬ (XIX, Achebe). Although all these people lived in Igboland, there were hundreds of different variations of Igbo, resulting in cultural differences and differences in language so great, that one Igbo group could be misunderstood by another only thirty miles away (XIX). Colonialism, a disease that spread through Africa causing destruction, disarray, and fear, was also directly responsible for the overall unity of the Igbo people observed throughout the twentieth century.Although colonialism broke up the unity of villages and forced different political, social, and economic lifestyles on the groups of Igbo people, colonialism also had a direct impact in forming national unity; in forming Ã¢â¬Å"a common Igbo identityÃ¢â¬ (XIX). Although colonialism diminished the values each Igbo group held dear to them throughout the generations, this was necessary in the development of t he identity of Igbo people as a whole as they were becoming part of a new, industrialized world.Things Fall Apart, by Chinua Achebe, showed both how destructive colonialism was and how detrimental it was to the close-knit Igbo villages. Destruction of entire clans by massacre was not out of line for white men during the beginning of colonialism, as this was the punishment of the Abame clan for killing the first white man they saw. The Umuofia and Mbanta clans knew better than to kill any white men before discovering their purposes, and reluctantly allowed the white, Christian missionaries to enter their villages.Okonkwo, a strong, important man from Umofia, was serving his seven-year exile in his motherland Mbanta when these missionaries became more profuse and active. He despised the white men and their new religion, and wanted action to be taken against them. At first, the churches were only able to attract people without a title, however, as time progressed, outcasts were attract ed and women who despised their village laws, such as throwing their Ã¢â¬Å"abominableÃ¢â¬ twins away, also joined (101). Christianity appealed to the people who had nothing if they followed their villageÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and beliefs.It eliminated the emotional burdens women had to face if they had twins, allowing the twins to live freely, rather than to be disposed of in a forest of death. During his exile, OkonkwoÃ¢â¬â¢s own son, in spite of his father, joined the missionaries in his hatred of village law, especially the fact that innocent children could be killed so easily, such as the boy Ikemafuma, taken prisoner by Umuofia and eventually killed. When Okonkwo returned to an unrecognizable Umuofia, his hatred of the white men increased. Real trouble began after a man from the Christian church unmasked one of the sacred egwugwu, an ancient god.This led to the council of chiefs from Umuofia to take action and burn the church down, leading to their imprisonment by the white Di strict Commissioner, leader of the white law. The ex-leaders of the village were shackled at the leisure of white men. No longer did these esteemed Umuofia chiefs hold the power; they were not the Ã¢â¬Å"menÃ¢â¬ of the village anymore. The white men were more powerful than them, subjugating them to their religion and law. Politically, white men now ruled Umuofia, with punishment settled by the white men in command, rather than a council of chiefs.After the release of the chiefs, an assembly of men met in the village to decide what they would do in response to these latest happenings. A group of white messengers arrived at the meeting and informed everyone that the District Commissioner said the assembly was to end. Okonkwo, in his anger, killed one of the messengers, and when no one else reacted, letting the others escape, he realized there was nothing he could do. White men were breaking up his community, and no one was man enough to take action and fight.Inside Ã¢â¬Å"he mourne d for the warlike men of Umuofia, who had so unaccountably become soft like womenÃ¢â¬ and he realized his community was lost to colonialism (129). Okonkwo knew that all of his hard work for power had been for nothing. He lived in a town filled with people readily allowing their selves to be taken over by foreign men implementing their own beliefs, religion, and power, and as a result he ended his own life. In the early phases of colonialism, it is easy to see how destructive its effects were on the idea of community; the churches separated people from each other, while the colonial law stripped the village of its power.Buchi EmechetaÃ¢â¬â¢s, The Joys of Motherhood, not only shows how Igbo communities are broken up, like Things Fall Apart, but it also shows how Igbo groups are brought together. In the time of Nnu Ego, wealth was not determined by the amount of wives a man had or how big his farm was, as it was in pre-colonial times. Instead, wealth was measured with money, money earned from hard labor, usually serving the white men and women or working for the government. People of Igbo groups, like Nnaife, NnuÃ¢â¬â¢s husband, moved from farming lands to cities to attempt to live Ã¢â¬Å"betterÃ¢â¬ lives. Moving to these cities, many different groups of Igbo people were iving together and had to learn to get along, because as Igbo people realized, although they may speak a little different, it was extremely difficult to live in a new place without being able to relate with anyone. In Lagos, the British colony where Nnaife and Nnu lived, Yoruba people and Igbo people did not get along well, practicing very different beliefs and ideas. With tension from other cultures, there was no need for any tension among the subgroups of Igbos, which is why regardless if they came from west or east Igboland, they would be understanding of each other.Being friendly with people of other Igbo groups provided a sense of family in a place where family did not exist. The I gbo people met in the cities, regardless of the clan they were from, became the Ã¢â¬Å"brothersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sistersÃ¢â¬ of the newcomers, who left their real family in their homeland, far away. Igbo groups living in cities merged together, not seeing each other as different groups, which was common in their own lands, but recognizing each other as Igbo; another who understands the same language and beliefs.Although moving to cities assimilated to Western culture was beneficial to Igbo people as a whole, the idea of family was greatly diminished, especially in the eyes of women. At a young age, Nnu Ego felt being a mother was an extremely important part of her life. She felt it was her purpose to have many kids, because they would eventually take care of her and bring her happiness. However, she discovered how hard being a mother actually was in a society dominated by Western beliefs and culture.In a farming society, such as Ibuza, having more kids meant having more help aro und the farm and the house. In an industrial society, like that of Lagos, the more kids meant more mouths to feed, more clothes to buy, and more money spent on education. Not only did the Nnaife have to work, but Nnu also had to devote all of her energy to earning money, specifically to make sure her kids received an education to be successful. As a result, children growing up in these societies lost their sense of responsibility for their family, an important part of Igbo beliefs.With all the hard work and suffering Nnu put forth for her children, just to have food in the house, her two oldest sons she sent to college didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even show their thanks and send anything back to her (224). Her idea of a family and happiness coming from her children was only a dream, and Nnu died a lonely death on the side of a road. Socially, western culture viewed it to be more beneficial to achieve self-success than care for family, which eventually drove NnuÃ¢â¬â¢s family apart, and led to Nn uÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Colonialism affected every Igbo person, whether they liked it or not. It gave women different outlooks on life, on being a mother.It stripped men of their power and manlihood. It brought a different religion, with a single god and different morals. It brought a new type of wealth, and education. Colonialism changed the ways of the Igbo forever. The groups were not all separate anymore, if you were Igbo, you were Igbo. That was all that mattered in a society run by Europeans, filled with people of many cultures for different reasons. Colonialism took away unity, but it created a new kind of unity. Colonialism not only introduced itÃ¢â¬â¢s economics, politics, and lifestyle; it also gave Igbo a reason to come together, which is important in an ever-changing society.For a culture that took generations to build, it is surprising that within a matter of a century, the distinguished characteristics of each Igbo clan were diminished, as each clan assimilated into the We stern way of living (XLVIII, Achebe). However, in the larger scheme of things, maybe the Igbo knew they were placed in a war they could never win, unless they gave in to their opponent; unless they gave in to change. Works Cited Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. South Africa: Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann Educational, 1996. Print. Emecheta, Buchi. The Joys of Motherhood. New York, New York: George Braziller, Inc. , 1979. Print.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
A recent recall across the United States and Canada has pet owners in frenzy. More than 60 million cans and pouches of pet food have been recalled as they have been linked to 10 cat and 6 dog deaths recently. The manufacturer sells food under 95 different brands, including Wal-Mart, Iams, and Safeway. As of yet the specific ingredient linked to the pet deaths has not been determined. Speculation links the liver failure of the cats to a wheat gluten ingredient. The FDA said that wheat gluten itself would not cause liver failure, but if it was contaminated with metal or mold toxins it could cause liver damage. The chief executive of menu foods, Paul Henderson issued a statement saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Our hearts go out to all of the pet owners across Canada, the United States and Mexico for any losses they experience and certainly for the worry this incident may be causingÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Company behind petÃ¢â¬ , 2007). Pet ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations when buying pet food are to keep their pets happy, healthy, and well fed. Many of the products recalled were manufactured under the best pet food names in the industry. Pet owner Chris Wood says Ã¢â¬Å"We love our pets just like children. They are not careful enough with the ingredients they put in pet food. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s scaryÃ¢â¬ (Molina, 2007). PetÃ¢â¬â¢s are companions that ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s have a deep responsibility to care for. Implications caused by this recall include worry for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s pet, having to find a new brand of food not manufactured by menu foods, and in the worse case scenario losing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s pet to liver failure. The worry alone is taking time and energy from pet owners across the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Pet owners are not only returning the recalled food but are taken precautions that cost a lot of money to ensure the safety and well-being of their pets. A veterinarian at the Animal Medical Center on the East Side of Manhattan, Dr. Ann Hohenhaus, said one cat died there over the weekend of kidney failure linked to the recalled food. Hohenhaus said the Animal Medical Center has tested 143 animals for renal failure since worried pet owners started taking their cats and dogs in for blood and urine tests on Saturday (March 18th, 2007)Ã¢â¬ (Mathews , 2007). Retailers are taking all measures to reassure pet owners. After the recall Ã¢â¬Å"PetSmart general manager Gary Brown said, Ã¢â¬ËEverything on our shelves is 100 percent safe for your petÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Molina, 2007). Petsmart is offering a full refund on all food purchased between December 3-March 6. A Long Island family whose two year old bull mastiff, Princess, died as a result of the recall are suing Menu Foods. Princess ate nothing but Nutro Foods all of her life and passed away from liver failure. The family is absolutely devastated by their loss. The family filed a lawsuit Ã¢â¬Å"Wednesday against Nutro and manufacturer Menu Foods. The lawsuit, filed in state Supreme Court in Nassau County, seeks unspecified compensatory and punitive damages, said BobbÃ¢â¬â¢s attorney, Kenneth MollinsÃ¢â¬ (Mathews, 2007). Quite often consumers put much research and time into products they purchase. When a consumer makes a purchase they assumed the manufacturer is offering a product that will be satisfactory and meet standards. Menu foods did switch to a new supplier for wheat gluten. As of the March 6, 2007 issued recall Mend Foods has once again changed its wheat gluten supply and is once again stocking shelves with premium pet food. Menu Foods expects losses of 24-60 million dollars for this recall and lawsuits that will prevail as a result of the contaminated pet food.
Friday, September 13, 2019
blacks in civil war Essay Slavery was abolished in this country over a hundred years ago but the consequences of this dark page in Americas history are felt even today. This site was created to address those consequences, the political, social and cultural life of todays and yesterdays African Americans. What affect did the Civil War have on African Americans in the United States? Were they, as some argued, better off before the Civil War, or do the advances that blacks have made since then proved that the Civil War was indeed the turning point in the lives and opportunities of African Americans? These questions and more will be addressed in the following pagesWhen slaves were purchased off the ships from Africa, they ended up on plantations. The size and location of landholdings depended on the crop and the owner who purchased the slave. Most plantations were of the smaller variety and it was rare for an owner to have more than 20 slaves. Most housed only a handful of slaves, but no matter what the numbers, plantation life was pretty much the same for most slaves. Slaves were usually divided into two groups, the gang crew (usually male and did the field work) and the task crew (usually female and worked in the big house). The workday began around sunrise and always ended before dark except at busy times such as harvest. Slaves were not worked after dark for a number of reasons. First, the owners feared that escape would be easier; second, working after dark was considered an unwarranted burden on the slave; lastly, they believed that it impeded efficiency by reducing the hours of sleep the slave received. This is not to say the slave owners were compassionate. They saw the slaves not as humans but a business investment and only wanted to protect that investment. Slaves were not required to work on Sunday, as it was denounced as irreligious and a flagrant violation of the slaves deserved day of rest. However, they worked every other day, rain or shine. A reasonable days work meant a dai ly chore that while not back-breaking required a brisk pace to finish. Although whites believed that slaves could neither do as much nor continue to work as long as whites, both crews worked anywhere from 12-14 hours a day, with an hour or so for lunch at midday.After a long day in the field or the masters house, slaves were allowed to return to their families, a family much different than those African Americans enjoy today. For the most part, marriages were arranged. To couples in arranged marriages, the idea of falling in love and having children was not even considered. Most slave owners agreed that ideally slave unions should be among the slaves on the same plantation and that marriage should be a way of breeding and promoting morality. The master would most often officiate at the wedding. They were then sent off to their quarters for a couple hours alone together. It was not unusual, and indeed expected, for slave women to have a child every year. Indeed it was not unheard of for slave women to have 25 children in the span of their lives, usually beginning to give birth at 12 or 13 years of age. These children rarely lived with their parents past the age of eight or nine. At this time they were either sold to another plantation or moved into the womens or mens quarters. Some states had laws forbidding taking children nine or under from their mothers, but this law was often ignored and rarely enforce d. All in all, the lack of recognized marriage ties and the constant separation of families through sale, made the slave family a temporary and fly-by-night affair, destined for broken hearts and the auction block. READ: My Life in Milwaukee, Wisconsin EssayScholars generally agree that although slaves were considered something less than human, they were valuable property and thus often lived better than free families. The average slave quarters housed 5.3 persons and consisted of dirt floors, boarded windows, and were usually made of logs. Adult males clothing consisted of four shirts, four pairs of pants, and one or two pairs of shoes. Adult women were issued four dresses per year, and headkerchiefs. Rarely, plantation owners also issued such items as petticoats, socks, underwear, jackets and overcoats. It is also believed that some slaves were allowed to earn a little money outside of the plantation and used this money to supply some of their clothing needs. In 1861 the Civil War began, and African Americans would never be the same again. At first, many whites did not want to arm blacks for fear the blacks would rise against them. As the war raged on and thousands of lives were lost, it became more and more obvious that allowing blacks to fight was the correct course of action. Once blacks were permitted to fight, they did so bravely and with honor. The black man went into the war with one determination, that once learning the use of arms, he would never be again made a slave. This idea created a drive to succeed where others failed, the desire to advance and procure their freedom was all the incentive needed. It is often said that these men were the bravest group ever to fight a war. They were never known to flee the scene of a battle, it was, rather, as much as the white officers could do to restrain them till the order to fire was given. In the end, the Civil War was worth it, for the Emancipation Proclamation was signed into law by A braham Lincoln in 1863 procuring the eventual release of millions of slaves. Blacks were finally free, but a new and difficult challenge awaited them. Family life and living conditions did not change much after the war. However, there were some differences: marriages were recognized and legal, and families could live without the fear of being separated by the sale of another family member. Most African Americans lived in small shacks that were provided for them by the plantation owner that they had a sharecropping agreement with. The shacks were one room houses that were in poor condition and non-insulated. Often, they only had three walls. Most of the families who lived in these shacks consisted of an average of four to five persons. There were also many couples who lived together and were not married. Families relied on their food, clothing, and health care from the plantation owner. Children of African American families were largely uneducated, as there were few schools for the c olored. Few opportunities existed for them to enrich or better their lives or conditions. WORKING CONDITIONSThe vast majority of African Americans in the South following the Civil War worked for the same plantation owners who they had previously called Master. They worked under a condition known as sharecropping. In January 1865, General William T. Sherman issued Special Field Order No. 15, setting aside the Sea Islands Off the Georgia coast and a portion of the South Carolina low-country rice fields for the exclusive settlement of freed people. Each family would receive forty acres of land and the loan of mules from the armythe origin, perhaps, of the famous forty acres and a mule idea that would soon capture the imagination of African Americans throughout the South (Faragher, 514). In this arrangement, the sharecropper would work a given section of plantation land. At the end of the harvest season, the owner would give the worker his share of the crop. Unfortunately for the African Americans, this ideal arrangement almost never worked out as it was designed due to manip ulation of the system by the owner. During the year, the owner provided the worker and his family with housing, as described earlier, food, clothing, and medical care. Then the owner would make the worker pay for these services using his part of the harvest. More often than not, the worker ended up with nothing. Also, there was no system of verification for the worker. When the owner presented the worker with his share of the harvest, the worker had to take the word of the owner that it was the actual share agreed upon.